地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 285-296.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170219

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国基础教育公共服务均等化空间格局及其影响因素

汪凡1(), 白永平1(), 周亮2,3, 纪学朋1, 徐智邦2, 乔富伟1   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
    2. 兰州交通大学测绘与地理信息学院,兰州 730070
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-19 修回日期:2018-08-11 出版日期:2019-02-20 发布日期:2019-03-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:汪凡(1992- ),男,湖北襄阳人,硕士,研究方向为区域发展与区域管理。E-mail: xywangfan@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41701173);中国博士后科学基金(2016M600121)

Spatial pattern and influencing factors of the equalization of basic education public service in China

Fan WANG1(), Yongping BAI1(), Liang ZHOU2,3, Xuepeng JI1, Zhibang XU2, Fuwei QIAO1   

  1. 1. College of Geographic and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2. Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-03-19 Revised:2018-08-11 Online:2019-02-20 Published:2019-03-08

摘要:

基于教育POI设施数据,利用ArcGIS比较统计地图(Cartogram)、核密度分析和探索性空间数据分析(ESDA)等方法对基础教育公共服务均等化空间格局进行研究,并采用地理加权回归(GWR)方法对其格局形成的影响因素进行探究。结果表明:东部和中部地区基础教育公共服务资源数量约占65%,基础教育公共服务的高值区域与城市群所在区域较为吻合,低值区域主要分布于胡焕庸线以西,东西部基础教育资源绝对数量差异明显。学前教育服务人均数量的低值区主要分布在西部,中部也存在部分低值塌陷区,相较于中小学,学前教育公共服务的非均等化问题突出。小学和中学教育公共服务人均数量的高高集聚(H-H)和低低集聚(L-L)区域在东中西地区均有分布,综合而言,地区基础教育公共服务人均数量均等化优于绝对数量的均等化状况。常住人口、第三产业比例、建成区面积是基础教育公共服务均等化空间格局分异的主要影响因素。

关键词: 基础教育公共服务, 均等化, 空间格局, 影响因素, POI

Abstract:

With the rapid socio-economic development and the progress of urbanization, the demand for basic education public service is increasing both in rural and urban areas. As a result, the issue of regional and urban-rural non-equalization has become increasingly prominent, which significantly affects the development of the harmonious society. Under this background, the paper discussed the equalization of basic education public service. Based on the POI data of basic education facilities, the spatial pattern and the influencing factors of the equalization of basic education public service in China were studied with the method of ArcGIS spatial statistical analysis functions, such as cartogram, kernel density, geographical weighted regression(GWR) and the exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA). The results show that the basic education public service of eastern and central China accounts for about 65%, and the high-value regions of the basic education public service are observed in urban agglomerations of China, while the low-value regions are mainly located to the west of the "Hu Line". The low-value regions of the preschool education public service per capita are found in the central and western regions of China. Compared with the elementary and secondary education public service, the non-equalization situation of the preschool public service is more obvious. The high-high concentrated regions, the elementary and secondary education public service per capita highly owned regions, and the low-low concentrated regions are distributed all over the country. In general, the equalization of regional basic education public service per capita is superior to the absolute numbers. The spatial heterogeneity is recognized by geographical weighted regression model. The resident population, tertiary industry proportion, and urban built-up area are the major factors influencing the spatial pattern of the equalization of basic education public service. Education fiscal expenditure, GDP per capita and the fixed asset investment are the secondary driving forces of the spatial pattern of the equalization of basic education public service.

Key words: basic education public service, equalization, spatial pattern, influencing factor, POI