地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 297-312.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170657

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

深圳不同类型农民工聚居区的社会融合及影响因素

杨高1(), 周春山2   

  1. 1. 广东财经大学地理与旅游学院,广州 510320
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-10 修回日期:2018-08-11 出版日期:2019-02-20 发布日期:2019-03-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨高(1984- ),男,四川达州人,博士,讲师,研究方向为城市地理和人口地理。E-mail: yanggao2@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(17BRK010);教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(18YJCZH217);广东省哲学社会科学规划青年项目(GD18YSH03)

The difference of social integration and its influencing factors by different types of rural migrant enclaves in Shenzhen

Gao YANG1(), Chunshan ZHOU2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou 510320, China
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2017-07-10 Revised:2018-08-11 Online:2019-02-20 Published:2019-03-08

摘要:

选取深圳罗芳村、共乐村、清湖村分别作为无依托缘聚型农民工聚居区(增长型)、半依托混居型(稳定型)、完全依托混居型(减少型)代表,对其社会融合的现状及影响因素进行了探讨,得出以下研究发现:① 整体而言,社会融合度由高至低分别为无依托缘聚型、半依托混居型、完全依托混居型聚居区。② 不同维度社会融合方面,无依托缘聚型在社区融合、社交融合及心理融合维度上最高;半依托混居型在社区融合、文化融合及经济融合维度上较高;完全依托混居型在社区融合和经济融合维度上最低。③ 社会融合的影响因素主要有社区支持度、职业技能、在深家庭规模、在深居住时间和年龄。就不同维度而言,社区融合、经济融合、社交融合、文化融合和心理融合最重要的影响因素分别是社区支持度、职业技能、职业技能、性别、社区支持度。④ 从不同类型聚居区的影响因素来看,无依托缘聚型主要受到婚姻、社区支持度、社区功能和年龄(负)的影响;半依托混居型主要受到职业技能、社区支持度和性别的影响;完全依托混居型则主要受到社区支持度和在深居住时间的影响。

关键词: 农民工, 农民工聚居区, 社会融合, 影响因素, 深圳

Abstract:

Since the reform and opening up, China's urbanization process has significantly accelerated its pace, with the national resident population urbanization rate increasing from 17.92% in 1978 to 56.1% in 2015. However, in late 2015, the national registered population urbanization rate is only 39.9%, which means that more than 200 million migrant workers are in the semi-urbanization state. For a long time, the separate administration of urban and rural areas has driven the migrant workers away from the urban system, making it difficult for them to enjoy the urban social security and social services like the urban citizens, which has brought about the institutional or non-institutional exclusion when they move into the urban areas. As a result, in the current process of urbanization in China, how to promote the social integration of migrant workers in the urban areas has become an important research topic. This paper selects Shenzhen, a metropolis with many migrant workers, as the research case. It focuses on the social integration of the three evolution types of rural migrant enclaves from the perspective of spatial differences. Based on the 1990, 2000 and 2010 census data in Shenzhen, this paper divides the evolution process of rural migrant enclaves into three types by using the location quotient, including the growing type, the stable type and the decaying type, and analyzes the differences of migrant worker social integration in Luofang village, Qinghu village and Gongle village respectively. It also carries out a questionnaire survey in the three types of rural migrant enclaves in Shenzhen in 2016, and explores the status and the influencing factors of migrant worker social integration in Shenzhen. The research findings are as follows: (1) Social integration of migrant workers in Shenzhen includes community integration, economic integration, social integration, cultural integration and psychological integration. (2) Luofang village has the highest level of social integration, followed by Gongle village and Qinghu village. Luofang village ranks first in terms of community integration, social integration and psychological integration. Gongle village has the highest economic integration. And Qinghu village enjoys the highest cultural integration. (3) Social integration of migrant workers is jointly influenced by community support, vocational skills, family size, length of residence in Shenzhen, and the age. Social integration in Luofang village is mainly influenced by community support, community function, the age and marital status, while social integration in Gongle village is mainly influenced by vocational skills, marital status and the age, and Qinghu village mainly by community support and length of residence in Shenzhen. (4) The most crucial factor contributing to the improvement of economic integration of migrant workers is not the rise of education level, but the improvement of vocational skills and the obtainment of vocational qualification certificates. Additionally, gender and community involvement have positive impact on community integration and negative impact on social integration, meaning that the more community activities one female participates in, the lower social integration and the higher community integration she will have.

Key words: migrant workers, rural migrant enclaves, social integration, influencing factor, Shenzhen