地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 1045-1062.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170862

• 专栏:城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

近六百年来长江三角洲地区城镇空间与城镇体系格局演变分析

覃丽君1,2(), 金晓斌1,2,3(), 蒋宇超1, 薛樵风1, 成一农4, 龙瀛5, 杨绪红1,3, 周寅康1,2,3   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 自然资源部海岸带开发与保护重点实验室,南京 210023
    3. 南京大学自然资源研究中心,南京 210023
    4. 云南大学历史与档案学院,昆明 650091
    5. 清华大学建筑学院,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-25 修回日期:2018-12-23 出版日期:2019-05-13 发布日期:2019-05-14
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:覃丽君(1993-),女,广西柳州人,硕士,主要从事土地利用变化研究。E-mail: qlijun_nju@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671082)

The spatial pattern of urban areas and urban system of Yangtze River Delta in the past 600 years

Lijun QIN1,2(), Xiaobin JIN1,2,3(), Yuchao JIANG1, Qiaofeng XUE1, Yinong CHENG4, Ying LONG5, Xuhong YANG1,3, Yinkang ZHOU1,2,3   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection, Ministry of Natural Resources, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Natural Resource Research Centre of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    4. School of History and Archives, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
    5. School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2017-08-25 Revised:2018-12-23 Online:2019-05-13 Published:2019-05-14

摘要:

基于历史文献、古地图和现代遥感数据,引入历史学古代城镇形态复原方法,复原(提取)明代以来长江三角洲地区113座城镇7个时间断面(1461年、1820年、1930年、1970年、1980年、2000年和2010年)下的城镇边界,采用扩张速率、扩张效率、首位度指数和位序-规模法则,分析了近六百年来区域城镇空间与城镇体系等级规模演变格局。取得以下研究结果:研究时段内,区内城镇用地总规模由205.98 km2增加到6442.19 km2,扩大了31.27倍;城镇扩张经历了萌芽阶段(明清时期)、起步阶段(民国至改革开放前夕)、成长阶段(改革开放至2000年)和加速阶段(2000—2010年),城镇扩张速率不断加快,但扩张效率有待提升;在城镇等级规模空间格局上,明清时期南京与苏州为区内的一级城镇,民国后,上海逐渐取代其地位,从五级城镇发展成为区域核心城镇,四级以上城镇主要集中在长江干流沿岸和太湖流域,五级以下城镇大多集中在安徽;城镇体系呈首位型分布,城镇首位度较高,且改革开放后的城镇首位度较明清与民国时期要高,不同等级规模城镇之间差距扩大,大城镇优势较强。近30年,长江沿岸城镇发展加速,苏锡常都市圈、南京都市圈等逐渐形成并快速发展。

关键词: 城镇体系, 空间格局, 土地利用, 长江三角洲, 近六百年

Abstract:

Based on the data extracted from historical documents, ancient maps and remote sensing, quoting the reconstruction method of ancient city from history study, this study reconstructed urban areas of 113 cities and towns from the Ming Dynasty in the Yangtze River Delta. Aiming to analyze the expansion progress of urban areas and the spatial pattern of urban system of this region since the Ming Dynasty, we took the years of 1461, 1820, 1930, 1970, 1980, 2000 and 2010 as time sections, and adopted the urban expansion rate, urban expansion efficiency, urban primacy index and rank-size rule. The results are as follows: (1) The urban area of 113 cities increased markedly in the past 600 years. The average increment is 31.27 times as 1461’s, from 205.98 km2 to 6442.19 km2, and Shanghai region has the greatest increment, 63.41 times as 1461’s. The urban expansion of the past 600 years can be divided into four processes: the embryonic stage (Ming and Qing dynasties), the starting stage (from the Republic of China to the early Reform and Opening-up), the growing stage (from the Reform and Opening-up to 2000) and the rapid development stage (21st century). The urban expansion rate was accelerating while the efficiency of urban expansion needs to be improved. (2) As for spatial pattern of the city size distribution, cities of Suzhou and Nanjing were the largest ones in the region in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and Shanghai substituted Suzhou and Nanjing and became the largest city in the Yangtze River Delta since the Republic of China. Large and medium scale cities were mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Basin and the Taihu Lake Basin, while the small-scale cities were mainly in Anhui Province. The city size distribution in urban system appeared to be the first-place pattern. The urban primacy index was high and the urban primacy index was lower in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The large-scale cities had more advantages and they developed faster, resulting in a wider gap between different scale cities.

Key words: urban system, spatial pattern, land use, Yangtze River Delta, the past 600 years