地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 1175-1188.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170968

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

教育绅士化社区:形成机制及其社会空间效应研究

胡述聚(), 李诚固(), 张婧, 马佐澎, 刘伟   

  1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-16 修回日期:2019-01-10 出版日期:2019-05-13 发布日期:2019-05-14
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:胡述聚(1989-),男,河南南阳人,博士生,主要研究方向为城市地理与城市规划。E-mail: husj163@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871158);国家自然科学基金项目(41771172);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目 (41601152)

Jiaoyufication community: Its formation mechanisms and socio-spatial consequences

Shuju HU(), Chenggu LI(), Jing ZHANG, Zuopeng MA, Wei LIU   

  1. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2017-10-16 Revised:2019-01-10 Online:2019-05-13 Published:2019-05-14

摘要:

教育绅士化现象已成为深刻影响我国城市居住空间分异的重要因素,以长春市郊区出现的教育绅士化社区为例,对其形成机制及社会空间效应进行深入研究。结果表明:① 在优质教育资源空间分布不均及教育体制改革背景下,私立学校与房地产开发活动在郊区的结合催生出一种新的教育绅士化现象,其实质是由教育资源引发的绅士化现象。② 教育绅士化社区采用“房地产+名校”的模式进行开发,涉及地方政府、房地产开发商、学校以及绅士阶层四大主体。教育绅士化缘于地方政府的征地行为,开发商是物质景观改造的主体,学校则是吸引绅士阶层集聚的关键。③ 教育绅士化社区一方面引导了资本、中产阶层和优质教育资源向郊区的迁移,促进了郊区物质景观及人口、社会经济的升级,并在一定程度上有利于教育公平。另一方面又不可避免地引起了城市人口、社会经济空间的分层和极化。本研究在一定程度上丰富了教育绅士化的研究内容和研究视野,同时对教育、住房以及城市发展政策的制定具有一定启示。

关键词: 绅士化, 教育绅士化, 居住空间分异, 社会经济空间重构, 社会空间效应

Abstract:

Jiaoyufication has become an important factor affecting urban residential differentiation in China. In this study, a Jiaoyufication community was taken as an example to explore how the construction of a school led to gentrification in Changchun’s suburbs and we also revealed its characteristics, formation mechanisms and demographic and socio-spatial consequences. Results showed that: (1) the combination of a private school and real estate speculations pawned a new variety of gentrification, which had different characteristics and formation mechanisms compared to classic school gentrification, which emerged in catchment areas of public schools. The Jiaoyufication community was a residential differentiation as well as the reconstruction of urban demographic and socio-economic space caused by educational inequality. (2) The community was built on a “real estate and elite school” model, and its participants included local government, real estate developers, schools and middle-class parents. Local governments played a pioneering role in the school gentrification process. The developer was the driving force behind promoting the physical upgrade of the community by investing heavily in constructing an upscale gated community and school. The school was the key to the successful development of the community, which attracted the incoming of the gentry. The school attracted the influx of the gentry to suburbs, promoted the suburb’s physical and socio-economic upgrade, thus, reconstructing the urban demographic and socio-economic space. (3) Contrary to the mainstream view that school gentrification would bring education unfair, the emergence of school gentrifying community led the capital, the middle class family and quality educational resources to suburbs, which was conducive to educational equality to some extent. However, Jiaoyufication community inevitably produced displacement and marginalization to the urban poor, as well as serious residential segregation and social stratification.

Key words: gentrification, Jiaoyufication, residential segregation, socio-economic reconstruction, socio-spatial consequences