地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 1080-1091.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171036

• 专栏:城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市空间扩展的生态环境效应研究——以内蒙古呼和浩特市为例

甄江红(), 王亚丰, 田圆圆, 何孙鹏, 王金礼   

  1. 内蒙古师范大学 地理科学学院,呼和浩特 010022
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-16 修回日期:2019-03-10 出版日期:2019-05-13 发布日期:2019-05-14
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:甄江红(1970-),女,内蒙古包头市人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事城市发展与区域规划研究。E-mail: zhenjianghong@sina.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41261109、41761032);内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2016MS0410)

Study on ecological environment effects of urban spatial expansion: Taking Inner Mongolia Hohhot City as an example

Jianghong ZHEN(), Yafeng WANG, Yuanyuan TIAN, Sunpeng HE, Jinli WANG   

  1. College of Geography Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Huhhot 010022, China
  • Received:2017-10-16 Revised:2019-03-10 Online:2019-05-13 Published:2019-05-14

摘要:

城市空间扩展对生态环境的影响及其响应研究备受关注。以内蒙古呼和浩特市为例,借助1977—2014年遥感影像,基于城市用地扩展定量分析及相关评估方法,从资源、环境、景观、生态服务价值及生态环境质量与生态风险变化等角度,对其空间扩展所致生态环境效应进行分析。结果表明:研究期内,呼和浩特市建成区面积扩大5.65倍,生态用地减少18.18%,城市排污总量增加1.62倍,热岛比例指数升高0.40倍,斑块数量增加1.12倍,生态系统服务价值降低8.30%,生态环境质量指数下降8.37%,生态压力指数升高6.11倍。可见,呼和浩特城市空间扩展已对生态环境造成影响,是导致生态用地减少、环境污染加重、热岛效应显著、景观格局破碎、生态功能减退、环境质量降低、生态风险加剧的原因之一。研究结论可为有效遏制城市用地扩张对生态环境的负面影响提供理论依据。

关键词: 城市空间扩展, 热岛效应, 生态环境质量, 生态风险, 呼和浩特市

Abstract:

The impact of urban spatial expansion on the ecological environment and its response has aroused much attention. The paper selected Hohhot city of Inner Mongolia as the research object, based on the remote sensing image during 1977 to 2014 as the source of information, and analysed the dynamic change of urban land expansion in this city. Based on the quantitative analysis of urban land expansion, the paper used the relevant assessment method and model to analyse the ecological environment effect of urban spatial expansion in the study area from a perspective of changes in resources, environment, landscape, value of ecosystem service, ecological environment quality and ecological risk. Results show that in the study period, the area of the built-up area in Huhhot increased from 34.59 km2 to 229.98 km2 and it expanded 5.65 times, while the ecological land area decreased from 2008.30 km2 to 1643.21 km2, down by 18.18%. The total pollutant discharge of urban areas increased 1.62 times, with the living garbage, the discharge of domestic sewage, the industrial waste water emissions, the industrial waste gas emissions, the industrial dust emissions, the industrial sulfur dioxide emissions, the industrial solid waste emissions increasing 0.41 times, 0.72 times, 3.91 times, 1.61 times, 1.12 times, 0.61 times and 1.32 times, respectively. The area of high temperature region of the urban area of Hohhot increased from 254.64 km2 to 325.60 km2. The heat island ratio index increased from 0.21 to 0.29 and it increased 0.40 times. The patch number and marginal density increased 1.12 times and 0.49 times, respectively, while the dominance index reduced by 11.76%. The value of ecosystem services reduced from 35.03 hundred million yuan (RMB) to 32.13 hundred million yuan (RMB), down by 8.30%. The biological abundance index, the vegetation coverage index, and the ecological environment quality index decreased by 8.04%, 6.10%, and 8.37%, respectively. The average per capita ecological footprint increased by 3.70 times, the per capita ecological carrying capacity reduced by 33.88% and the ecological pressure index rose 6.11 times. In summary, urban spatial expansion in Huhhot has led to the eco-environmental effects such as the loss of ecological land, the increase of environmental pollution, significant urban heat island effect, fragmented landscape pattern, degraded ecological service function, declined environmental quality, and exacerbated ecological risk. The research results have important theoretical significance and practical value to effective mitigation in the negative impact of urban land expansion on the eco-environment.

Key words: urban spatial expansion, heat island effect, ecological environment quality, ecological risk, Huhhot City