地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 1063-1079.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171193

• 专栏:城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

1979—2014年长沙市城市功能用地扩展与驱动力研究

叶强1(), 莫正玺1(), 许乙青1,2   

  1. 1. 湖南大学建筑学院,长沙 410082
    2. 湖南大学设计研究院有限公司,长沙 410006
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-28 修回日期:2019-01-12 出版日期:2019-05-13 发布日期:2019-05-14
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:叶强(1964-),男,江西省上饶人,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为城市商业空间结构理论研究。E-mail: yeqianghn@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51878252);湖南省重点研发计划(2018NK2051、2018NK2053)

The expansion and driving forces of the functional space land: A case study of Changsha from 1979 to 2014

Qiang YE1(), Zhengxi MO1(), Yiqing XU1,2   

  1. 1. School of Architecture, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
    2. Hunan University Design And Research Institute Co., Ltd, Changsha 410006, China
  • Received:2017-11-28 Revised:2019-01-12 Online:2019-05-13 Published:2019-05-14

摘要:

基于长沙市中心城区1979年、1989年、2003年、2011年、2014年5个年份的土地利用现状图,借助ArcGIS、SPSS分析工具,提取居住、工业、服务三大功能用地,从方向、圈层、强度、用地间转变及轴带趋向对长沙城市功能用地扩展的时空特征及驱动力进行研究。结果表明:① 用地扩展模式以“圈层式、轴带式”为主,并逐渐向“多组团式”过渡,由单一的向外扩展向内部功能间演替和外部扩展相结合转变。整体扩展方向经历了由“东、南、东南-西北、东、东南、北”的变化,但各类用地的扩展方向有所差异;② 从扩展强度看,居住用地远远高于城市总体扩展强度,造成了城市功能空间失衡的现象,服务配套明显滞后,部分分区在扩展过程中,出现了与规划定位严重不符的矛盾;③ 功能用地间的转变主要集中在城市核心区,表现出以核心-外围明显分异的差距。外围片区的功能较为单一,融合度不够,未来应增强配套服务功能。④ 从经济驱动力、政策调控力、生态制约力与吸引力、社会助推力四个方面分析了功能用地扩展时空差异的驱动因素。⑤ 从“问题导向-现象归纳-本质剖析-策略应对”提出了城市功能用地扩展研究的基本研究框架。

关键词: 城市功能用地, 扩展特征, 驱动力, 长沙市

Abstract:

The expansion of urban functional space has always been a core issue in the study of urban geography and urban planning. In this paper, we mainly focus on the following three types of urban functional spaces: residential space, industrial spaces and service space, and we take the central city of Changsha as our study area. Based on the land use map covering the years of 1979, 1989, 2003, 2011 and 2014 as well as corresponding statistical yearbooks, in combination of taking GIS and SPSS statistical tools, this article analyzed the dynamic features and driving forces of the functional space evolution of Changsha by citing a variety of models such as sector fractal, “center-periphery” spheres density, expansion intensity, coupling degree and axial sprawl index. The results were obtained as follows: (1) The urban functional space of Changsha's central city expanded rapidly between 1979 and 2014. And the pattern of extension was still displaying the “circle mode” and “axis belt mode”, but gradually transited to “polycentric structure”. In the process of quick external expansion, the urban land also filled internally in the study period. The direction of functional transformation presented a phase difference clearly, which had experienced the process of “east, south and southeast” from 1979 to 1989 to the “northwest, east, southeast and north” during 2011 to 2014. Meanwhile, it showed some differentiation of different types of functional land. (2) Residential space showed excessive expansion and guided other spaces extension, which was incompatible with other functional urban spaces, causing an imbalance in urban functional space. Some zones even showed serious contradiction with city planning during the process of expansion. (3) Functional spaces coupling showed significant “core-peripheral” geographic differentiation, and mainly focused on the core area. Functional space types in peripheral area were relatively single, which means that the level of alignment was insufficient. To strengthen urban comprehensive competitiveness, local government should improve service function and promote functional integration. (4) This study also probes the dynamic driving forces of the evolution of the functional space in Changsha City, mainly including economic, administrative, ecological and social factors. And the administrative factor played a significant role in the evolution. (5) We propose the basic research framework for the study of urban functional land expansion from "problem orientation -phenomenon induction - essential analysis - strategy response", which can provide theoretical guidance for optimizing the internal space structure and improve the functional efficiency of the central city.

Key words: urban functional land, expansion characteristics, driving force, Changsha