地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 437-444.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020171214

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中全新世仰韶文化扩张的环境背景

侯光良1(), 许长军2, 吕晨青1, 陈琼1, 兰措卓玛1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学地理科学学院,西宁 810008
    2. 青海省地理空间信息技术与应用重点实验室,西宁 810000
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-14 修回日期:2018-08-20 出版日期:2019-02-20 发布日期:2019-03-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:侯光良(1972- ),博士,教授,研究方向环境变化与人类活动。E-mail: hgl20@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    青海省科技厅自然科学基金项目(2017-ZJ-903);国家自然科学基金项目(41761018)

The environmental background of Yangshao culture expansion in the mid-Holocene

Guangliang HOU1(), Changjun XU2, Chenqing LU1, Qiong CHEN1, zhuoma Lancuo1   

  1. 1. School of Geographic Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Geographical Spatial Information Technology and Application of Qinghai Province, Xining 810000, China
  • Received:2017-12-14 Revised:2018-08-20 Online:2019-02-20 Published:2019-03-08

摘要:

黄河流域新石器文化在仰韶时期迅速扩张,由先前的以渭河流域为中心扩张到西至青海东部,东达黄河下游地区,北抵内蒙古长城一线,南至汉水流域的广大地区。全新世大暖期暖湿的气候条件与仰韶文化的迅速扩张关系密切。仰韶时期,黄土高原年均气温较现代高约2℃,年降水高出现代约100 mm,季风强劲,降水增加,400 mm等降水量线较现代向西北内陆推进200 km左右,黍粟作种植的范围扩大,仰韶文化相应扩张。400 mm等降水量线成为仰韶文化扩张的西界,也是全新世大暖期仰韶黍粟作种植区和北方细石器狩猎—采集区分界线。

关键词: 仰韶文化, 扩张, 400 mm等降水量线, 中全新世

Abstract:

Yangshao culture is the representative of the Holocene Neolithic culture in the north of China. The Neolithic culture in Yellow River Basin expanded quickly in the Yangshao period, from the previous Weihe River valley in the west to eastern Qinghai, east to the lower reaches of Yellow River, north to Chifeng of Inner Mongolia, and south to most parts of Hanshui River valley. The warm and wet Holocene megathermal climate conditions were closely related to the quick expansion of the Yangshao culture. In the Yangshao period, as the powerful monsoon increased rainfall, the 400 mm isohyet moved towards northwest about 200 km. This means that the northern monsoon boundary system has expanded to the northwest inland, resulting in the expansion of the cultivation of the millet, and the Yangshao culture, which is characterized by millet cultivation, has also expanded accordingly. The 400 mm isohyet became the west boundary of Yangshao culture expansion, as well as the boundary of Yangshao millet planting area and north microliths hunting-gathering area in the Holocene megathermal. The summer monsoon in northern China in the mid-Holocene period increased. The expansion of the monsoon to the interior led to the expansion of Yangshao culture in northern China. The expanded Yangshao culture also laid the early form of the relatively unified Chinese civilization, and eventually became one of the important sources of Chinese civilization.

Key words: Yangshao culture, expansion, 400 mm isohyet, mid-Holocene