地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 760-771.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180073

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基于ECPS模型的青海湟水国家湿地公园湿地恢复评估

毛旭锋1,2(), 魏晓燕3, 陈琼1, 刘峰贵1, 陶雅琴4, 张志法4   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学地理科学学院, 西宁 810000
    2. 青海省自然地理与环境过程重点实验室, 西宁 810000
    3. 青海师范大学经济与管理学院,西宁 810000
    4. 西宁湟水国家湿地公园, 西宁 810000
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-16 修回日期:2018-05-06 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-04-30
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:毛旭锋(1981-),男,江西鹰潭人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事湿地生态过程、湿地保护与恢复研究。E-mail: maoxufeng@yeah.net

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501906-01);国家自然科学基金项目(51669028,51409144)

An ECPS framework based assessment on wetland restoration of the Huangshui National Wetland Park in Qinghai province, China

Xufeng MAO1,2(), Xiaoyan WEI3, Qiong CHEN1, Fenggui LIU1, Yaqin TAO4, Zhifa ZHANG4   

  1. 1. School of Geography Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810000, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Natural Geography and Environmental Process of Qinghai Province, Xining 810000, China
    3. School of Economics and Management, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810000, China
    4. Huangshui National Wetland Park of Xining City, Xining 810000, China
  • Received:2018-01-16 Revised:2018-05-06 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-04-30

摘要:

恢复效果评估是湿地恢复工程评价以及湿地后续高效管理和利用的基础。以西宁湟水国家湿地公园为案例区,构建基于生态系统特征-生态系统过程-生态系统服务(ECPS)的评估体系,筛选与区域自然环境相适应的的评价因子,采用样方调查、野外监测、问卷调查等方法获取评估数据,从时空尺度评价湿地恢复区植被特征、水文过程到生态系统服务变化情况,并对影响湿地恢复的主要过程和因素展开分析和讨论。结果显示,湿地恢复的综合评价指数为41分,湿地恢复效果较好:① 湿地恢复区植物增加了11种,而湿地植被的平均盖度也增加了35.5%,重点监测的三种优势湿地植物(芦苇、小香蒲和篦齿眼子菜)在单位面积上的平均生物量较参照区平均增加30.9%。② 从生态过程指标来看,湿地恢复区TSIp (Total System Interflow of P)指数和FCIp (Finn Cycle Index of P)指数较参照区分别提升了37.2%和26.3%,说明湿地物质交换和循环过程有一定的改善。③ 从生态系统服务指标的变化来看,栖息地、土壤肥力、水质净化、大气调节、休闲娱乐服务分别增加了92.3%,50.9%,98.3%,73.8%和82.6%。④ 从湿地恢复的影响因素来看,湿地水深、水域面积、水温和底泥颗粒粒径大小与湿地植被恢复相关,并进一步影响湿地生态过程恢复和生态系统服务的空间分布。

关键词: 高原湿地, 生态恢复, 生态特征, 生态过程, 生态系统服务

Abstract:

The effect assessment for wetland restoration is crucial for wetland management and sustainable utilization. Applying the Huangshui National Wetland Park in the city of Xining, China as a case study, this paper describes how degraded wetland was restored in the perspective of wetland ecological characters, ecological processes and ecosystem services (ECPS). A total of 10 indicators were selected for restoration effect assessment. Vegetation sampling plots investigation, questionnaire survey method and field monitoring were used to collect assessment data. In spatial and temporal scales, we investigated how wetland vegetation, ecological processes and ecosystem services varied in response to restoration project as well as some physical indices. The research results showed that wetland restoration had a score of 41 with a level of Preferably: (1) The abundance of wetland plants increased from 31 types to 42 types with an average increase of 35.5% in plant coverage. The average biomasses of three types of monitored plants (Phragmites communis, Typha minima, and Potamogeton pectinatus) increased by 30.9%. (2) TSIp and FCIp in restoration area increased by 37.2% and 26.3%, respectively, indicating a certain of improvement in matter exchanges and recycles of wetland ecosystem. (3) As for the wetland ecosystem service indices, habitat, soil fertility, water purification, atmosphere adjustment and tourism increased by 92.3%, 50.9%, 98.3%, 73.8% and 82.6%, respectively. (4) The factors of altitude, depth of water, particle diameter, etc., exhibited certain correlations with the abundance and dominant species of wetland plants, which further influence the restoration of ecological processes and the distribution of ecosystem services. (5) With respect to the score distribution of restoration, the ecosystem service indicators scored the highest with over 80% of the total restoration score; followed by the ecological process score, accounting for about 13% of the total restoration score. The above results indicate that the primary targets of wetland restoration related researchers and managers have shifted from ecological characteristics restoration, such as wetland vegetation and wetland area, to ecological processes and ecosystem services. In general, the current framework proposed for wetland restoration assessment can well reflect the characteristics, processes and functions of wetland ecosystems, and provide a good reference for the future assessment of ecological restoration in plateau region.

Key words: plateau urban wetland, ecological restoration, ecological characters, ecological processes, ecosystem services