地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (7): 1720-1732.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180097

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

世界一流大学空间集聚对研发密集型企业空间布局的影响——以美国为例

侯纯光1,2,3(), 杜德斌1,2,3(), 史文天1,2, 桂钦昌1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学全球创新与发展研究院,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200062
    3. 华东师范大学国家教育宏观政策研究院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-16 修回日期:2019-05-10 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-07-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:侯纯光(1990-),男,安徽利辛人,博士研究生,研究方向为世界地理和科技创新。E-mail: 1570846532@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA20100311);中国科协“高端科技创新智库青年项目”——博士生项目(CXY-ZKQN-2019-043);华东师范大学优秀博士生学术创新能力提升计划项目(YBNLTS2019-033);华东师范大学国家教育宏观政策研究院博士生科研项目(201902002S)

The influence of the spatial agglomeration of the world first-class universities on the spatial distribution of R&D intensive enterprises: A case study of the United States

Chunguang HOU1,2,3(), Debin DU1,2,3(), Wentian SHI1,2, Qinchang GUI1,2   

  1. 1. Institute for Global Innovation and Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3. National Institute of Educational Policy Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2018-01-16 Revised:2019-05-10 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-07-12

摘要:

以美国为例,运用矢量数据符号法、核密度估计,结合负二项回归模型,研究世界一流大学空间集聚对研发密集型企业空间布局的影响,得出以下结论:① 美国一流大学和研发密集型企业高等级集聚区主要有东北沿海大都市带、硅谷地区、芝加哥都市区和洛杉矶都市区,两者呈现高度的空间集聚性和空间匹配性。② 美国研发密集型企业偏向于选择与自身从事研发领域相关的一流学科空间集聚区进行布局。③ 美国一流大学和研发密集型企业的高值热点区集中在硅谷地区,呈半圆形辐射状,较高值热点区主要分布在东北沿海大都市带,呈带状辐射。④ 为寻求创新资源禀赋,获取知识溢出经济,共享创新基础设施,降低技术转移成本,获得创新集群优势,研发密集型企业优先选择一流大学集聚区进行空间布局。

关键词: 世界一流大学, 研发密集型企业, 空间布局, 影响机制, 美国

Abstract:

The world first-class universities can continuously provide innovative talents, generate new knowledge and generate new businesses for the public, and have become the focus of global attention. The R&D intensive enterprises mean more investment in R&D, greater R&D strength, technology and innovation as the fundamental, realize its sustained and rapid development of enterprises, and the spatial distribution of R&D intensive enterprises is the microcosmic basis for understanding the regional economic transformation. This paper is based on the microcosmic data of world first-class universities and R&D intensive enterprises, by using vector data notation, kernel density estimation combined with the negative two regression model, taking the United States as an example, to study the influence mechanism of spatial agglomeration of world first-class universities on R&D intensive enterprises' spatial layout. The results shows that: (1) The world first-class universities and R&D intensive enterprises highly concentrated area mainly include the northeast coastal metropolitan zone, the Chicago metropolitan area, the Silicon Valley area and the Los Angeles metropolitan area, which present a high degree of agglomeration and spatial matching in the USA. (2) The software and computer services R&D enterprises are mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley, New York and Miami, the technology hardware and equipment R&D enterprises mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley, Los Angeles and New York; the pharmaceutical and biotechnology R&D enterprises mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley and New York; the health care equipment and R&D enterprises mainly concentrated in Silicon Valley and Boston, and R&D intensive enterprises prefer to choose the world first-rate subject space agglomeration area related to their own R&D field in the USA. (3) The high value hot spots in the first-class universities and R&D intensive enterprises are concentrated in the Silicon Valley area, showing a semicircular radiation pattern, and the higher value hot spots are mainly distributed in the northeast coastal metropolitan zone, showing the band radiation. (4) In order to seek innovative resource endowment, acquire knowledge spillover economy, share innovation infrastructure, reduce technology transfer cost, and get the advantage of innovation cluster, R&D intensive enterprises choose the first-class university agglomeration area for spatial layout.

Key words: world first-class universities, R&D intensive enterprises, space layout, impact mechanism, United States