地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (7): 1705-1719.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180160

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

“一带一路”倡议下中国与中亚合作的战略支点选择

李鲁奇1,2(), 孔翔1,2(), 李一曼1,2, 许杨博文1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-02 修回日期:2019-05-10 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-07-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李鲁奇(1991-),男,山东宁阳人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为城市与区域空间结构、地理系统复杂性。E-mail: liluqi@outlook.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771156);中央高校基本科研业务费项目华东师范大学共享交叉基金(人文社会科学)项目(2019ECNU-GXJC002)

The selection of the strategic pivot in China-Central Asia cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative

Luqi LI1,2(), Xiang KONG1,2(), Yiman LI1,2, Bowen XUYANG1,2   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2018-02-02 Revised:2019-05-10 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-07-12

摘要:

中亚在“一带一路”倡议中具有重要地缘价值,而中国与中亚的合作需以战略支点为依托。相关研究多关注国家尺度和定性方法,较少深入到对区域尺度战略支点及其空间结构的分析中,可能导致支点范围较大、针对性较弱。故本文主要从区域尺度入手,基于对各类空间要素的综合评价,对战略支点的空间结构进行分析。研究表明,乌鲁木齐等中国城市、阿拉木图等中亚城市以及霍尔果斯等边境口岸在各类节点中具有综合优势。基于可达性和城市网络分析结果,结合中国与中亚合作现状,可将“乌鲁木齐-阿拉木图经济走廊”作为战略支点,采取“两核四轴四带”的空间结构。创新点在于从区域尺度认识战略支点并分析其空间结构,有利于通过尺度上推进一步撬动高尺度合作。

关键词: “一带一路”, 战略支点, 空间结构, 经济走廊, 边境, 中亚, 中国

Abstract:

Central Asia plays a crucial role in the Belt and Road Initiative, serving as a bridge between China and Europe. In geopolitical terms, it is a high valued region that provides new strategic opportunities to China when the U.S. withdraws from Afghanistan and Russia is relatively declining. In order to promote China-Central Asia cooperation, a strategic pivot is urgently needed. There is a growing number of studies on the selection and spatial distribution of strategic pivots under the Belt and Road Initiative, nevertheless, most studies fall short of a scrutiny of pivots at lower scales. Instead, the pivots are mostly geopolitical units at the national scale, e.g. Kazakhstan or Pakistan. Also, a qualitative approach is widely used by scholars while the quantitative methods are largely overlooked. The results and approaches of current researches could not be perfectly applied to the analysis of Central Asia, as the so-called “pivots” are relatively broad and unclear for the cooperation in this region, which needs a pivot at regional or even urban scale. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the selection and spatial structure evolution of the regional scale strategic pivot of China-Central Asia cooperation by evaluating a variety of spatial objects, e.g. cities, frontier ports and transport infrastructure. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) Based on the evaluation and clustering analysis, 15 Chinese cities, 10 Central Asian cities and 4 frontier ports can be extracted from major cities and ports in China and Central Asia. The most significant nodes include Urumqi, Ili, Almaty, Bishkek, Tashkent, Horgos, etc. (2) Based on the accessibility to the China-Central Asia boundary, the nodes are further refined, in which Urumqi, Ili, Almaty and Bishkek are major cities within the 12 h isochronous rings. Also, the results of overall accessibility and city networks suggest a curved valley stretching from Urumqi to East Turkmenistan, covering major cities in Southeastern Central Asia. (3) Based on the results, the “Urumqi-Almaty Economic Corridor” can be constructed as the regional pivot of China-Central Asia cooperation. The spatial structure of the pivot can be designed as “two cores, four axes, and two belts”. Accordingly, the construction of the corridor should focus mostly on the development of frontier ports, transportation infrastructures and cities in the core area.

Key words: the Belt and Road Initiative, strategic pivot, spatial structure, economic corridor, border, Central Asia, China