地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 1451-1463.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180192

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国地区价格指数测度与空间分异

闫梅1(), 李国平2, 黄金川3,4()   

  1. 1. 中国社会科学院工业经济研究所,北京 100836
    2. 北京大学政府管理学院,北京 100871
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-24 修回日期:2018-06-02 出版日期:2019-06-20 发布日期:2019-06-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:闫梅(1987-),女,山东青岛人,博士,编辑,研究方向为区域发展差距、京津冀区域发展。E-mai: yanmeijudy@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671120);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA19040501)

Measurement and spatial disparities of regional Purchasing Power Parity in China

Mei YAN1(), Guoping LI2, Jinchuan HUANG3,4()   

  1. 1. Institute of Industrial Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100836, China
    2. School of Government, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-02-24 Revised:2018-06-02 Online:2019-06-20 Published:2019-06-12

摘要:

地区价格指数是不同地区购买一篮子相同商品和服务的价格之比,表征同一时期、不同地区的物价综合水平。借鉴购买力平价理论,构建适用于中国地区价格指数测算的指标体系和计算方法,测度了100个典型城市的地区价格指数并进行差异分析。研究结果表明:不同地区商品和服务的价格差异显著,地区价格指数界于0.849~1.662之间,最高值为最低值的1.95倍;住房价格的地区差异最大,教育、医疗次之,是影响居民实际生活水平的三大主要因素;食品、交通、教育和医疗价格的空间集聚程度较高,通信、住房、文娱价格的空间集聚程度较低;地区价格指数在全国呈“东高西低、南高北低”的空间分异格局,东南沿海地区物价水平较高、黄河中游地区物价水平较低。通过对地区价格指数的研究,能够为关注民生时代的区域协调发展政策制定提供科学依据。

关键词: 地区价格指数(地区PPP), 购买力平价(PPP), 价格水平, 空间分异, 中国

Abstract:

As socialism with Chinese characteristics enters into a new era, the security and improvement of people's livelihood have become the focal point of social development, which makes the research on residents' living standard a heated topic in the field of the regional disparities. It is widely acknowledged that the income and commodity price are the two important factors that affect the residents' living standard. Usually, the nominal indices are adopted to study the regional disparities. In that case, the residents' living standard might be overestimated or underestimated due to the difference of price levels in different regions. Regional price index (or regional PPP) is consequently used as a spatial index that represents the comprehensive price level from a basket of the same products or services of different regions, which can be used to compare different price levels among different regions. It can eliminate the impacts of the price disparity and enable the nominal income to reflect the real living standard just as the real income does. This study constructs a framework to measure the different regional price levels in China, which includes a basket of products and a set of calculation methods. Derived from the theory of Purchasing Power Parity, the methods have been applied to estimate the price level among 100 typical cities.

The major results include: (1) Regional PPP is an index that compares the comprehensive prices of different regions, showing that the city with a high regional PPP would have relatively high price of commodities and low purchasing power. (2) The regional PPP of the whole 100 cities differs strongly from each other and ranges from 0.85 to 1.66, with the highest regional price level 1.95 times of the lowest. Specifically, the regional house price differs the most, followed by education and medical treatment. These are also the most critical factors affecting the civil livelihood. (3) The spatial distribution of regional PPP presents spatial agglomeration characteristics. The prices of food, water-electricity-fuel, and transportation are much more aggregated. Moreover, the cities with higher price level aggregate in the southeast coastal area, while cities with lower price level aggregate over the Yellow River basin in the central region.

This study gives an overview of the regional PPP over China, which might be useful for narrowing the gap of real income between different regions and achieving a relatively balanced society. Only by promoting the reasonability of the price level, improving the real purchase power of residents, and lowering the real income gap between regions, can we achieve a balanced livelihood and coordinated development.

Key words: regional price index (regional PPP), Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), price level, regional disparity, China