地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 1299-1310.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180264

• 专栏:文化传承与空间治理 • 上一篇    下一篇

明清江南观音香汛的地域系统

张伟然()   

  1. 复旦大学历史地理研究中心,上海 200433
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-22 修回日期:2018-08-14 出版日期:2019-06-20 发布日期:2019-06-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张伟然(1965-),男,湖南安仁人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为历史人文地理。E-mail: zhangweiran@fudan.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271156);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(16JJD770009)

Regional systems of pilgrimages to Guanyin in the Yangtze Delta during the Ming-Qing period

Weiran ZHANG()   

  1. Center for Historical Geographical Studies of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • Received:2018-03-22 Revised:2018-08-14 Online:2019-06-20 Published:2019-06-12

摘要:

普陀山作为观音道场从五代时期兴起后,对江南民间产生了极为重要的影响。明清时期,观音香汛成为江南香汛的主流。不同尺度的香汛空间形成了明显的互补结构。其中,层级最高的朝香圣地是普陀山和杭州的天竺山,香汛范围可覆盖整个江南,影响广及全国。其次,是一些区域性的名山,如苏州支硎山、扬州功德山,其影响可及于数府。再次就是各地的一些小范围的观音道场。这些不同空间尺度的佛教圣地,形成了一个立体的层级结构。普陀山的香汛空间主要受区位、交通制约。天竺香汛受到、却不完全受空间距离影响,宁、绍的天竺香汛远不如嘉、湖,甚至不及苏、松,其中有着基于历史文化传统的地缘观念的影响。

关键词: 明清, 江南, 观音信仰, 朝香, 地域系统

Abstract:

Mount Putuo has a great impact on the society in the lower Yangtze River Delta ever since its rise as the abode of Guanyin in the Five Dynasties. In the Ming-Qing period, making pilgrimages to abodes of Guanyin became the mainstream of pilgrimage activities during the peak season in the lower Yangtze River Delta. Pilgrimage places of different scales obviously formed a complementary structure. Within this structure, Mount Putuo and Mount Tianzhu in Hangzhou belonged to the highest level of pilgrimage sites, since their influences at least covered the entire realm of the lower Yangtze Delta, and even extended to the whole China. The secondary level of pilgrimage sites refers to regional famous mountains, such as Mount Zhixing in Suzhou and Mount Gongde in Yangzhou, whose influences were limited to several prefectures. The third level of pilgrimage sites means some small-scale destinations pertaining to Guanyin. All these Buddhist sacred sites of different spatial scales formed a three-dimensional layered structure.

The geographical sources of pilgrims in the peak season of pilgrimages to Mount Tianzhu can be classified into three types: (1) core areas, including Hangzhou, Jiaxing and Huzhou prefectures; (2) subcore areas, including Suzhou and Songjiang prefectures; (3) peripheral areas, including Changzhou, Ningbo, and Shaoxing prefectures.

The spatial features of pilgrimages to Mount Putuo can be described as the places where the pilgrims tended to use waterways and harbors extensively. Before the late Qing Dynasty, while the most important harbor was Hanzhou, other harbors on the two sides of Hangzhou Bay also provided convenience for pilgrimages, including Peijiaxiang in Jingshan and Zhenhai in Ningbo. In modern China, due to the improvement of transportation, Shanghai and Ningbo become the most important harbors to departing for Mount Putuo.

This paper shows that while the spatial influences of pilgrimages to Mount Putuo are mainly restricted by location and transportation, the spatial influences of pilgrimages to Tianzhu are restricted by, but not entirely limited by spatial distances. Specifically, pilgrimages to Tianzhu are more popular in the Taihu Lake area than in Ningbo-Shaoxing Plain. The geographical concepts based on historical and cultural traditions contribute to the regional differences of making pilgrimages to Tianzhu.

Key words: Ming-Qing period, the Yangtze Delta, the cult of Guanyin, pilgrimage, regional systems