地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 856-868.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180315

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中国精准扶贫土地整治的典型模式

臧玉珠1,2(), 刘彦随1,2(), 杨园园1,2, 王永生1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-03 修回日期:2018-07-18 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-04-30
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:臧玉珠(1990-),女,山东潍坊人,博士,主要从事土地利用与城乡发展研究。E-mail: zangyz.17b@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471143,41601173)

Typical models of land consolidation for poverty alleviation

Yuzhu ZANG1,2(), Yansui LIU1,2(), Yuanyuan YANG1,2, Yongsheng WANG1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-04-03 Revised:2018-07-18 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-04-30

摘要:

土地整治是助推精准扶贫,实现脱贫解困的重要途径。根据土地整治作用于农村减贫发展的实现路径,将全国土地整治助推精准扶贫的典型模式概括为四种:① 单项土地整理模式。通过开发低效未利用地,建设高标准农田,改善农业生产条件,促进农业规模化经营。② 三生空间优化模式。将农村宅基地复垦与易地扶贫搬迁相结合,改善人居环境,恢复脆弱生态,优化乡村三生空间。③ 土地资产显化模式。实施补充耕地指标有偿异地调剂,积累扶贫开发资金,促进城乡要素双向流动,统筹城乡发展。④ 土地资本流动模式。将土地整治与土地流转及作价入股相结合,整合贫困地区劳动力、资本等要素资源,推动农业现代化和乡村振兴。

关键词: 土地整治, 土地工程, 扶贫开发, 乡村振兴, 乡村可持续发展

Abstract:

Poverty is an obstacle for rural revitalization and development. As the largest developing country in the world, China has been struggling against poverty for decades and has achieved a great success. Land consolidation is regarded as an indispensable path to poverty alleviation in rural China, where residents are suffering from agriculture recession such as fragmentation of arable land, soil impoverishment, and infrastructure damage, etc. According to the path in promoting poverty alleviation, land consolidation can be categorized as four typical models. Firstly, the key of land consolidation is to increase the amount of arable land and improve the conditions of agricultural production. And land consolidation is generally composed of exploiting uncultivated land, levelling uneven land, merging scattered land as well as constructing irrigation and drainage facilities. Then poor peasants can obtain concentrated and contiguous farmland equipped with improved infrastructures and roads, which makes contribution to agriculture mechanization and large-scale operation. This kind of project is categorized as "Elementary Land Consolidation Model". In addition, impoverished people usually live in mountainous areas or remote valleys, featured by inconvenient transportation and fragile ecology. Therefore, it is important to resettle these people and restore the fragile eco-environment so that peasants can enjoy livable residential space, convenient production space and sustainable ecological space. Considering the multifunction of land consolidation for optimizing rural production, living and ecological spaces, this kind of project is named "Reconstruction of Three Spaces Model". Although there is sufficient land space for construction in rural areas, cities are short of construction land for further expansion. Accordingly, a new scheme was innovated that peasants can reclaim rural settlements to increase arable land, and urban departments can buy these quotas to obtain more construction land. In this way, rural departments acquire additional capital for poverty alleviation and economic development. This new project is named "Mobilizing Land Assets Model" as it can turn rural land into actual property and bring revenues to farmers. Furthermore, rural areas also face another obstacle on the way to prosperity except for capital, that is the enormous labor flow from rural areas into cities. A large quantity of farmland has been abandoned due to the lack of adequate labors, resulting in agriculture decline and rural poverty. To resolve these rural issues, farmers are encouraged to transfer their land use rights to rural collective economic organization with identifying them as stockholders. Then the transferred land is leased to professional enterprises or farmers which will bring profits to local farmers. During this process, land plays a role of stock capital, so this project is named "Land Capitalization Model". In general, land consolidation integrated with land rights transaction conduces to agriculture modernization and rural revitalization. Nonetheless, there are still some problems during land consolidation which need to be addressed, including the single financing channels, the absence of supporting system and the lack of advanced planning. The governments are supposed to take measures to promote land consolidation in poor rural areas, such as expanding financing channels, establishing perfect supporting system, and enhancing advanced planning.

Key words: land consolidation, land engineering, poverty alleviation, rural revitalization, rural sustainability