地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 2239-2251.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180370

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于不同区域层级的文化产业集聚研究

陶金,罗守贵()   

  1. 上海交通大学安泰经济与管理学院,上海 200030
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-16 修回日期:2018-10-16 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 罗守贵 E-mail:sgluo@sjtu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:陶金(1989-),男,江苏灌云人,博士研究生,研究方向为产业发展与科技创新。E-mail: <email>taojin0804@126.com</email>
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(12&ZD026);上海市软科学基金重点课题(18692180500)

Agglomeration economies in cultural industries: A comparison at the city and province level

TAO Jin,LUO Shougui()   

  1. Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
  • Received:2018-04-16 Revised:2018-10-16 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-11
  • Contact: Shougui LUO E-mail:sgluo@sjtu.edu.cn

摘要:

利用企业层面数据,从市域和省域两个尺度研究中国文化产业的集聚特征,并揭示集聚对文化企业生产率的影响。应用一致性方法估计了中国文化企业的生产函数,并计算企业层面全要素生产率估计值,并从专业化和城市化两个角度研究集聚对于文化企业的影响。结果表明:① 地级市尺度下,文化产业专业化经济并不显著,但却存在城市化经济;② 在更大的省域层面,则呈现出专业化经济显著,多样化经济弱化的特征;③ 行业和区域异质性回归显示了结果的稳健性,核心文化产业的产业集聚经济更显著;④ 在知识溢出效应占主导的文化集聚中,通信基础设施良好的省份被赋予了创意交流的便利性,因而拥有更强的集聚经济。

关键词: 文化产业, 集聚经济, 生产率, 专业化, 多样化

Abstract:

Economists have long argued that there is a productivity gain from agglomeration. And the rise of cultural industries has been benefited from agglomeration economies. However, existing research has been lacking of empirical attempts to analyze the mechanism of agglomeration economies in cultural industries from the perspective of productivity. This study contributes to the literature on agglomeration economies by providing the first study, to the authors' knowledge, on the firm-level productivities in cultural industries. This paper studies agglomeration economies for cultural industries in Chinese cities and provinces using firm-level data, and reveals the culture cluster's impact on cultural firms' TFP. Firstly, the paper estimates the production function of cultural industries and firm-level TFP using the consistent method. Specifically, the paper estimates the production function by controlling simultaneity and selection biases. Secondly, it analyzes the localization and urbanization economies for cultural industries through comparing the effects in cities and provinces. The paper constructs two measures of agglomeration: specialization and diversity. Specialization, which measures the concentration of artists and cultural workers in a province, aims to test the Marshallian economies. Diversity, which measures the diversity of industries in a province, aims to test the Jacobian economies. In order to capture the true effects of culture cluster on the productivities of cultural firms, the paper conducts the regression by applying different empirical methods, including OLS, 2SLS, instrument variable and fixed effects. The study shows that there is no significant specialization effect but clear diversity effect on cultural industries in Chinese cities. However, at provincial level, which is a larger geographical scale, strong specialization is found instead of diversity. In contrast to manufacturing industries, the effects of employment intensity, and market access are not strong enough to promote the productivities of cultural firms. The benchmark regression proves to be robust by the disaggregated analysis, which also indicates that the core cultural sector has stronger agglomeration economies. Besides,the disaggregated results show that the agglomeration economies could be channelled through knowledge and ideas spillover that come from telecommunication, as agglomeration economies, including both specialization and diversity, tend to rise in provinces with better telecommunication infrastructure.

Key words: cultural industries, agglomeration economies, productivity, specialization, diversity