地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 23-32.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180460

所属专题: 人口与城市研究

• • 上一篇    下一篇

新型城镇化背景下城市外来人口的社会融合

宁越敏1(), 杨传开2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 上海社会科学院城市与人口发展研究所,上海 200020
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-12 修回日期:2018-11-13 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-01-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:宁越敏(1954- ),男,上海市人,教授,研究方向为城市地理与城市经济。E-mail: ymning@re.ecnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(17JJD790007);国家自然科学基金项目(41701192);上海市浦江人才计划项目(17PJC076)

Social integration of rural migrants under the background of new-type urbanization

Yuemin NING1(), Chuankai YANG2   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. Institute of Urban and Demographic Studies, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Shanghai 200020, China
  • Received:2018-07-12 Revised:2018-11-13 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-01-29

摘要:

促进农业转移人口的市民化、提高城镇化质量,已成为新型城镇化关注的焦点。在考察中国城镇化过程和行为主体的基础上,揭示城市外来人口社会融合面临的主要问题及形成原因,进而提出促进外来人口社会融合的策略。研究发现:政府、企业和个人不仅是推进城镇化的三个行为主体,三者之间的交互影响也导致外来人口社会融合问题的产生。中央政府主要通过政策引导城镇化的健康发展,地方政府在推进地方城镇化中扮演重要的作用,但更多关注自身行政区范围内的经济发展和社会福祉,通过户籍制度排斥外来人口的社会融入。中国企业主要承接劳动密集型的产业,因而大多采取低工资、低社会保障的政策。个人的人力资本等特征对于外来人口的社会融合也具有重要影响。但在三个行为主体中,外来人口处于最弱势的地位,制度性的障碍使他们难以嵌入城市社会。为了更好促进城市外来人口的社会融合,研究认为:需要进一步深化户籍制度改革,建设包容性城市,推进基本公共服务均等化,政府、企业和个人三个行为主体共同承担市民化的成本。

关键词: 新型城镇化, 外来人口, 市民化, 社会融合

Abstract:

Under the background of human-oriented new-type urbanization, the citizenization of rural migrants attracted more and more attention from scholars and governments in recent years. On the basis of analyzing the China's urbanization and behavioral agencies, the paper indicated major difficulties facing the rural migrants in the process of social integration. The main findings are as follows: (1) the government, firm and individual are three main behavioral agencies in the process of urbanization in China, and their interaction is the main cause leading to the appearances of social exclusion. (2) The central government is mainly in charge of guiding the overall development of national urbanization by making top-level policies, while local governments play an important part in promoting local urbanization. However, by mean of the household registration system, local governments pay more attention to the economic development, and generally exclude the rural migrants from other administrative units to share the equal welfare together with the local residents. (3) Most China's firms mainly undertake labor-intensive industries, and most of them adopt low-wage and low-social security policies to decrease the productive cost. These measures result in low wages and low social security level for rural migrants and hinder their social integration. (4) The human capital characteristics of individuals also have an important influence on the social integration of floating population. Generally, the rural migrants with more human capitals (well-educated, younger, etc.) are more likely to integrate themselves into local society. Among the three behavioral agencies, the rural migrants are no doubt in the weakest status, and the institutional obstacles hinder them to embed in the urban society. In the end, some suggestions were proposed to promote the social integration of rural migrants. Firstly, we should deepen the reform of the household registration system, build an inclusive city, and promote the equalization of basic public services. Secondly, the government, firms and individuals should share the cost to realize citizenship.

Key words: new-type urbanization, rural migrants, citizenization, social integration