地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 784-793.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180465

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藏族村落地名的空间格局、生成机制与保护策略——以甘南藏族自治州夏河县为例

李巍1(), 杨斌2()   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
    2. 兰州观城城市规划设计有限公司,兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-08 修回日期:2018-06-25 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-04-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李巍(1978-),男,甘肃兰州人,副教授,研究方向为城乡规划与文化遗产保护。E-mail: lw_nwnu@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(14BSH029)

The spatial patterns, generative mechanism and protective strategies of Tibetan village names: A case study in Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture

Wei LI1(), Bin YANG2()   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2. Lanzhou Guancheng City Planning and Design Institute, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2018-05-08 Revised:2018-06-25 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-04-20

摘要:

地名是特定空间上自然或人文地理实体的专有名称。村落地名作为文化景观的重要组成部分,记录着多元文化信息,也是集体记忆的重要载体。研究村落地名的空间格局、生成机制与保护策略,对于传承乡土文脉具有深远的价值。以甘南州夏河县藏族村落为例,应用GIS核密度估计法刻画了地名的空间格局,从文化景观视角出发解读了藏族村落地名的类型和生成机制。研究表明:以文化型为主、自然型为辅、复合型补充的地名体系是藏族村落命名的基本范式;映射出深厚的自然性基因、恋地性基因、记述性基因和关系性基因等文化景观特质;环境指向、族源沿袭、信仰认同和区际交融是藏族村落地名生成的源发力量。制定地名保护名录、建立地名标识系统是藏族村落地名保护的当务之急。

关键词: 藏族村落, 地名, 文化景观, 夏河县

Abstract:

Place names refer to proper terms of both physical and human geographic entities in certain spaces. Village names, as an important part of cultural landscape, are carriers of multicultural information and collective memories. The research on the spatial patterns, generative mechanism and protective strategies of village names is of profound significance to inheritance of native culture. Taking villages in Xiahe county, Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture as examples and applying to GIS kernel density estimation, this paper describes the spatial patterns of Tibetan village names and interprets their classification and generative mechanism from the perspective of culture landscape. The research suggests the three categories constitute the basic paradigm of Tibetan village name system, with the names of nature as the major part, the names of culture as the minor part and the names of mixed mode as supplements, which reflects some essential features of cultural landscape such as the feature of nature, the feature of topophilia, the feature of description and the feature of interrelationship. It is also shown that the environment orientation, ethnic inheritance, belief identity and interregional blending are the driving forces for the genesis of Tibetan village names. To protect Tibetan village names, the top priorities are making a dictionary of protection and establishing an identification system of place names.

Key words: Tibetan village names, place name, cultural landscape, Xiahe county