地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 64-74.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180468

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从中心地到城市网络——中国城镇体系研究的理论转变

王士君1(), 廉超1, 赵梓渝2()   

  1. 1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
    2. 宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系,宁波 315211
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-07 修回日期:2018-11-05 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-01-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王士君(1963- ),男,黑龙江延寿人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市地理学和经济地理学。E-mail: wangsj@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41630749,41471142)

From central place to city network: A theoretical change in China's urban system study

Shijun WANG1(), Chao LIAN1, Ziyu ZHAO2()   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    2. Department of Geography & Spatial Information Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China;
  • Received:2018-08-07 Revised:2018-11-05 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-01-29

摘要:

城镇体系核心特征的演变,推动其研究视角由等级制的传统中心地理论向关系制的现代城市网络转变。以已有相关研究成果为基础,简要回顾克氏中心地理论在中国城镇体系研究中的理论和实证进展,通过对中心地理论固有缺陷,以及城镇体系研究逻辑变化的分析,阐明传统中心地理论在解释和解决现代城镇体系问题时的局限性;指出城市网络理论兴起的背景:交通革命带来的时空压缩导致区位论的解释失效、流空间理论的产生、全球化与生产网络的产生、制度与体制演变——中心地组织原则的转化;从企业组织、交通流、信息流三个研究视角,揭示中国城镇体系研究的网络思维端倪;通过研究主体特征的关注由中心性到节点属性、主体关系由等级从属到功能互补、时空尺度由地方到全球三个方面的对比,指出中心地与城市网络应用于城镇体系研究中的理论差异。

关键词: 中心地理论, 城市网络, 城镇体系, 理论转变, 中国

Abstract:

The systematic and organizational nature of the urban system is not naturally formed and immutable, but it is actively reconstructed and evolved along with the process of social spatial production. The evolution of the characteristics of the research object has promoted the theoretical development of the urban system research. The research perspective has changed from the hierarchical central traditional theory to the modern urban network of the relational system. Based on the integration of relevant research results, the paper first briefly reviews the theoretical and empirical progress of the Christaller center theory in China's urban system research. By analyzing the inherent defects of the central geography theory and the logical changes in the research of the urban system, the limitations of the traditional central theories in interpreting and solving the problems of the modern urban system are expounded. That is, the main deficiencies of the central theories are owing to closed systems. The hypothesis of spatial homogenization created by theory is too ideal and the perfect structural picture which is devoted to the condition of strict hypothesis is unlikely to exist in reality which leads to the lack of universality in its application and the influence of practical value. Secondly, it is pointed out that the theoretical failure of central land theory and the rise of urban network theory are reflected in the following aspects: the time and space compression brought by the traffic revolution leads to the failure of the interpretation of location theory, the generation of space of flow theory, the generation of globalization and production network, the evolution of system and the transformation of the central organization principle. Thirdly, from the three research perspectives of enterprise organization, infrastructure, and information flow, and the evaluation index system of degree-centrality and cluster structure, etc., the network thinking of China's urban system research is revealed. Finally, it is pointed out that from the level to the network, the differences between the traditional and modern urban system research and the theoretical transformation of China's urban system research are reflected in the main characteristics changing from the central to the node attributes, and the main relationship, from hierarchical subordinate to functional complementary. The analysis logic of the subject relationship is transformed from vertical, monopoly and control of research objects, scale relation to vertical and horizontal, complementary and cooperative, and complex relationship network relations; spatial scales change from the locality to the global; the foothold of the research is from the result of closed and static to the process of open and dynamic.

Key words: central place theory, city network, urban system, theoretical change, China