地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 2173-2187.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180659

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国土地利用变化生态环境效应的空间分异性与形成机理

陈万旭1,2,李江风1,2(),曾杰1,冉端1,2,杨斌1,2   

  1. 1. 中国地质大学(武汉)公共管理学院,武汉 430074
    2. 国土资源部法律评价工程重点实验室,武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-02 修回日期:2018-09-06 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 李江风 E-mail:jfli0524@163.com
  • 作者简介:陈万旭(1989-),男,河南信阳人,博士研究生,研究方向为资源环境、区域经济。E-mail: cugcwx@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41701629);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(CUG160819);国土资源部法律评价工程重点实验室开放基金项目(CUGFP-1704);国土资源部法律评价工程重点实验室开放基金项目(CUGFP-1811)

Spatial heterogeneity and formation mechanism of eco-environmental effect of land use change in China

CHEN Wanxu1,2,LI Jiangfeng1,2(),ZENG Jie1,RAN Duan1,2,YANG Bin1,2   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Legal Assessment Project, Ministry of Land and Resources, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2018-07-02 Revised:2018-09-06 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-11
  • Contact: Jiangfeng LI E-mail:jfli0524@163.com

摘要:

中国复杂的自然要素、社会经济要素、区域发展战略和政策调控形成了当前中国不均衡的经济发展空间格局、土地利用空间格局和生态环境质量空间格局。厘清中国生态环境质量的空间格局及形成机理对中国土地资源的可持续利用和生态环境的有效保护具有重要的实践意义和价值。以往研究缺乏对中国县域尺度土地利用/土地覆被变化生态环境效应的空间分异性及形成机理的相关研究,本研究基于1995—2015年间中国土地利用现状遥感监测数据,尝试采用生态环境质量指数方法测度中国土地利用变化的生态环境效应,并且综合运用重心分析、热点分析工具(Getis-Ord Gi*)和地理探测器等研究方法,分析1995—2015年中国生态环境质量时空演变特征及形成机理。研究结果如下:① 东部季风区生态环境质量指数高于青藏高寒区和西北干旱区,东部季风区生态环境质量低值区主要分布在人口和经济集聚的城市群以及省会城市周边地区。研究期间中国生态环境质量重心持续向西北方向迁移;② 1995—2015年间中国生态环境质量变化的热点区域主要分布在西藏地区、新疆、重庆、贵州以及位于黄土高原的省份(青海、甘肃、宁夏、内蒙古、山西、陕西以及河南)境内,冷点区域主要分布在长江经济带沿线地区省份以及东南部沿海地区省份;③ 土地利用程度对于生态环境质量影响力显著强于其他因子,东部季风区的社会经济和交通区位因子对生态环境质量影响力强于青藏高寒区、西北干旱区和生态大区过渡带;④ 影响因子之间相互作用主要包括非线性增强作用和双因子增强作用两种类型,以非线性增强作用为主。

关键词: 生态环境质量, 空间分异性, 重心分析, 热点分析, 地理探测器, 形成机理, 中国

Abstract:

The complex physical elements, socioeconomic elements, regional development strategies, and policy adjustments have formed China's current unbalanced spatial economic development pattern, spatial land use pattern, and spatial eco-environmental quality pattern. The unclear eco-environmental quality formation mechanism would limit the sustainable land use and the effective conservation of the ecological environment in China. Few studies have examined the spatial heterogeneity and the formation mechanism of China's eco-environmental quality at the national scale. This paper uses the eco-environmental quality index method to measure the eco-environmental effects of land use/land cover change (LULCC) to provide an overall review of eco-environmental quality index under complex physical and socioeconomic circumstances in China. We analyze the spatiotemporal evolution features and formation mechanism of eco-environmental quality from 1995 to 2015 with the gravity center analysis method, hot-spots analysis tool (Getis-Ord Gi*), and Geo-detectors tool. The results are as follows: (1) The eco-environmental quality of the eastern monsoon region is higher than that of the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the arid region of northwest China. The low-value regions of the eastern monsoon region are mainly distributed in urban areas with dense population and economic agglomeration. The gravity center of eco-environmental quality during the study period moves toward the northwest of China continuously; (2) The hot-spots areas of eco-environmental quality change during 1995-2015 are mainly distributed in Tibet, Xinjiang, Chongqing, Guizhou, and the provinces located in the Loess Plateau (Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Henan). The cold-spots areas are mainly distributed in the provinces along the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the coastal regions in the southeast of China. The cold-spots and hot-spots changes in China's eco-environmental quality are closely related to the regional development strategies and the implementation of ecological conservation projects in China; (3) Land use intensity has a stronger effect on the eco-environmental quality than other factors, and the impacts of socioeconomy, traffic road, geographic location in the eastern monsoon region are stronger than those in the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the arid region of northwest China; (4) The interactions between physical elements and socioeconomic elements are stronger than the interactions within individual indicators. The interactions between the influencing factors mainly include nonlinear enhancement and bi-factor enhancement, and nonlinear enhancement is the dominant interaction mode.

Key words: eco-environmental quality, spatial heterogeneity, center of gravity analysis, hotspots analysis, Geo-detector, formation mechanism, China