地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (7): 1581-1593.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180830

• 专栏:生活地理与城乡休闲 • 上一篇    下一篇

从“地方感”到“人地相处”——以广州天河体育中心公共休闲空间中的人地关系为例

张骁鸣1,2(), 翁佳茗1   

  1. 1. 中山大学旅游学院,珠海 519082
    2. 中山大学旅游发展与规划研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-17 修回日期:2018-10-17 出版日期:2019-07-20 发布日期:2019-07-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张骁鸣(1979-),男,重庆荣昌人,博士,副教授,博士生导师,主要从事旅游地理学、时空间体验的现象学与符号学研究。E-mail: zhangxm3@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471123)

From "sense of place" to "human-place association": A human-place relationship in the Guangzhou Tianhe Sports Center public leisure space

Xiaoming ZHANG1,2(), Jiaming WENG1   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
    2. Center for Tourism Planning & Research, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2018-08-17 Revised:2018-10-17 Online:2019-07-20 Published:2019-07-12

摘要:

从基于现象学路径的地方感研究引入,批判性地借鉴地方芭蕾概念,按照人地之间实际相处的亲疏程度不同,将广州天河体育中心公共休闲空间中的人地关系区分为三类:日常式相处、周期式相处、背景式相处。其中背景式相处的人地关系已经超越了地方芭蕾概念的解释边界,由此引发出如下两个值得进一步探讨的理论命题:第一,“人地整体”或“人地相处”或可取代人文主义地理学研究中用以刻画人地关系本质的“地方整体”概念;第二,目前主流的地方感研究实质上是一种基于心理学的局部的地方感研究,在它之外还应有一种围绕着人地相处的各种实际可能性来展开的整体的地方感研究,以及一种接近于哲学层次的人地关系基础研究。

关键词: 城市, 公共休闲空间, 地方感, 地方芭蕾, 人地整体, 人地相处

Abstract:

As a key concept that describes human-place relationships, "sense of place" has long been an area of focus of international geographers. Studies on sense of place are currently either based on phenomenology and existentialism, with emphasis on describing the human experience of space and place, or on quantitative psychology and various dimensions of sense of place. With the former approach, researchers focus on the relationship between people and relatively familiar places, whereas with the latter, researchers focus on the relationship between people and unfamiliar places. Based on phenomenology, we explored sense of place in urban public leisure spaces, taking Guangzhou Tianhe Sports Center as an example. We used the concept of "place-ballet" and six features developed by David Seamon, namely, attraction, diversity, comfortableness, invitation, distinctiveness, and attachment, as key factors that generate sense of place. Research suggests that the first five features correspond to the five ways people and places interact, whereas attachment is a more emotional feeling, that is, a sense of place generated from the five types of association. We classified the human-place relationship of the above public leisure space into three categories by extent of human-place closeness: (1) "Daily association", whereby people used the sports center at relatively frequent intervals (e.g., every day or week) to engage in leisure activities, in particular physical exercise, thus forming a direct and close-use relationship with the space and facilities; (2) "Periodic association", whereby people visited the sports center for specific events (e.g., Guangzhou Evergrande football match or annual Spring Flower Market), thus forming a direct but loose-use relationship with the space and facilities; and (3) "Contextual association", whereby people had no direct-use relationship with the place but had witnessed or participated in a certain stage of the developmental history of the sports center over a sufficiently long period. Of these three human-place relationships, contextual association exceeds the explanation boundary of the "place-ballet" concept. Hence, we introduced two theoretical propositions for further exploration. The "human-place whole" and "human-place association" concepts can substitute the concept of "place whole" employed in previous human geographical research. In terms of actual research needs, the "human-place association" concept, which can direct specific observation practices and describe experiences, is more important than the "human-place whole" concept. Current mainstream research on sense of place (including place attachment) is only a partial research based on psychology. In addition, sense of place can be studied as a whole for various human-place associations, and as basic research that is close to philosophical level and fully incorporates human-place relationships by ensuring descriptive and interpretive applications. Overall, our classification and discussion of the categories of human-place relationships in special areas, such as urban public leisure spaces, include explicitly empirical observations, general facts, and unified dimensional standards. They are not only applicable for studying human-place relationship phenomena in leisure spaces but can also provide a valuable reference for studying such phenomena in other special urban spaces.

Key words: city, public leisure space, sense of place, place ballet, human-place whole, human-place association