地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (5): 1003-1015.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180868

• 专栏:城市研究 •    下一篇

中国城市市辖区的空间结构及演化机制

朱建华1(), 戚伟2, 修春亮3()   

  1. 1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 东北大学江河建筑学院,沈阳 110819
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-28 修回日期:2019-04-03 出版日期:2019-05-13 发布日期:2019-05-14
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:朱建华(1988-),男,江苏海安人,博士,讲师,研究方向为政治地理学和城市地理学。E-mail: zjh198827@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41701150,41871151);博士后基金项目(2017M611297)

Spatial structure and evolution mechanism of municipal districts in China

Jianhua ZHU1(), Wei QI2, Chunliang XIU3()   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Northeastern University JangHo Architecture College, Shenyang 110819, China
  • Received:2018-08-28 Revised:2019-04-03 Online:2019-05-13 Published:2019-05-14

摘要:

本文提出了市辖区6种空间结构类型:圈层式、组合式、并排式、独立式、包围式及飞地式,并总结了6种类型的主要特征。通过对中国市辖区分布格局及演变分析,发现城市规模等级越高,市辖区数量越多、人口密度越大。6种类型城市分布情况为圈层式结构城市集中在东部地区,组合式结构城市在东北地区分布最密,独立式结构城市大多分布于中西部,包围式结构城市中部地区最多,并排式和飞地式结构城市在全国分布比较均衡。市辖区空间结构的一般演化路径为“独立式-并排式-组合式-圈层式”,圈层式结构会继续优化,通过“内城合并、外城扩张”向第三、四圈层发展。文章最后分析了增设、拆分与合并市辖区三种行政区划调整方式的影响因素及作用机制。

关键词: 市辖区, 行政区划, 空间结构, 城市规模等级, 影响因素

Abstract:

It is a law that different urban scales have different modes of administrative division in the development of cities. In China, with the rapid development of urbanization, the number of municipal districts in the city increased quickly, and meanwhile, the spatial structure of municipal districts changed continuously. However, the related research is scare. In this paper, six theoretical spatial structure models of administrative division of municipal districts were generalized, including circle type, combination type, parallel type, independent type, enclosed type and enclave type. Besides, main characteristics of the six types of municipal districts spatial structure were summarized. Through the analysis of the distribution pattern and evolution of China's current municipal districts, we find that the larger the scale of China’s cities, the greater the number of municipal districts, at the same time, the greater the population density. In terms of spatial distribution, we find cities of circle type gather in the eastern region, the cities of combination type are densely distributed in the northeast region, the cities of independent type are mostly distributed in the central and western regions, the cities of enclosed type are mostly distributed in the central region, and the cities of parallel type and enclave type are evenly distributed in the whole country. The general evolution path of municipal district spatial structure is “independent type - parallel type - combination type - circle type”. Spatial structure of cities of circle type will continue to be optimized. Through “the merger of inner city, the expansion of outer city”, the city transforms second circle to third or fourth circle. Finally, the paper analyzes the factors which influenced the adding, splitting and merging of the administrative division adjustment. The main factors of adding municipal districts include the level of economic development, the increase of urban population and land demand, traffic location, topography and administrative status and boundary. The main factors of splitting municipal districts include too large an area and a population, natural geographical conditions and transformation of new district and the open economic zone to municipal districts. The main factors of merging municipal districts include small-scale municipal district, functional orientation and policies.

Key words: municipal district, administrative division, spatial structure, urban size rank, influential factors