地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 2330-2345.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180913

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

乡村农户旅游适应效果、模式及其影响因素——以西安市和咸阳市17个案例村为例

何旭,杨海娟(),王晓雅   

  1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-23 修回日期:2019-04-15 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 杨海娟 E-mail:xayhj@126.com
  • 作者简介:何旭(1996-),女,陕西咸阳人,硕士,主要从事旅游地理学与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: csxgj689@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAL01B00)

Adaptation effect, mode and influencing factors of rural tourism: A case study of 17 typical villages in cities of Xi'an and Xianyang

HE Xu,YANG Haijuan(),WANG Xiaoya   

  1. School of Urban and Environment, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
  • Received:2018-09-23 Revised:2019-04-15 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-11
  • Contact: Haijuan YANG E-mail:xayhj@126.com

摘要:

乡村旅游地面临人地交互作用的剧烈变迁,内部要素适应社会-生态系统变化,趋利避害降低脆弱性具有重要现实意义。本文重新界定基于恢复力和脆弱性的农户适应性理论内涵,构建旅游开发适应力指标体系,以西安市和咸阳市17个不同类型的城郊型乡村旅游地为例,评价和分析农户旅游适应效果与空间差异规律,探讨和归纳适应行为与对策模式,建立BP神经网络辨别和揭示适应性影响因素与重要性关系。研究表明:① 西安市和咸阳市农户适应旅游开发综合效果呈现中等偏下水平的偏态分布趋势,分别处于旅游地生命周期快速发展阶段和探索起步阶段。② 乡村旅游地农户适应效果形成“圈层辐射、两翼包络、外围联动”的县域尺度空间分布格局;村域尺度圈层分化现象显著。③ 经营模式划分的旅游乡村农户适应效果股份制模式>“公司+农户”模式>“政府+公司+农户”模式>个体农庄模式>“农户+农户”模式;常年外出务工和农家乐经营是农户主要适应行为选择,季节性务工、本地上班以及农业生产是辅助适应行为选择,且适应行为组合方式表现为旅游专营型、旅游主导型、均衡兼营型、务工主导型和务农主导型五种适应对策模式。④ 旅游发展机会认知、技能培训机会、社会联结度、劳动力总量、政策知晓度、旅游就业人数、收入来源种类、生活主要能源、受教育程度、公共服务设施是农户主要旅游适应性影响因素。据此,提出后续社会-生态整合研究亟需突破方向和适应旅游开发的政策路径。

关键词: 农户, 社会-生态系统, 适应性, 乡村旅游, BP神经网络

Abstract:

Rural tourism sites have witnessed dramatic changes in human-land interaction, and their internal factors are adapting social-ecological system changes. It is of great practical significance to avoid disadvantages and reduce vulnerability. This paper redefines the theoretical connotation of farmers' adaptability based on resilience and vulnerability, and constructs an adaptability indicator system of tourism development based on a case study of 17 tourist villages in the cities of Xi'an and Xianyang, so as to examine the adaptation effect and spatial difference law of rural tourism, explore the adaptive behavior and countermeasure mode, and establish a back-propagation network to reveal the relationship between adaptive influencing factors. The results are obtained as follows: (1) The comprehensive effect of farmers' adaptation on tourism development in Xi'an and Xianyang shows a trend of skewed distribution at the middle-lower level in the stage of rapid development of tourism life cycle and the initial stage of exploration. (2) The adaptation effect of households in the rural tourism area forms a spatial pattern of “scale circle radiation, two-wing envelope and peripheral linkage”; the segmental differentiation of the village scale is significant. (3) The adaptation mode of rural households is identified by business model: shareholding system model > “company + farmer” mode > “government + company + farmer” mode > individual farm mode > “farmers + farmers” model; migrant workers and farmhouse management are the main adaptation of farmers. Behavior choice, seasonal work, local work and agricultural production are auxiliary adaptation behavior choices, and the adaptation behaviors are characterized by five types of adaptation strategies: tourism franchise, tourism-oriented, balanced, labor-oriented and agricultural-oriented. (4) Tourism development opportunity cognition, skills training opportunities, social connection degree, total labor force, policy awareness, tourism employment, income source types, primary energy sources, education level, and public service facilities are the main factors affecting farmers' tourism adaptability. Based on this, we proposed that the follow-up social-ecological integration research should adapt to the policy path of tourism development.

Key words: farmers, social-ecological system, adaptability, rural tourism, Back-Propagation network