地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 725-740.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020181092

• 乡村振兴模式与对策 • 上一篇    

转型视阈下珠三角地区乡村发展过程及地域模式梳理

杨忍1(), 陈燕纯1, 龚建周2   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    2. 广州大学地理科学学院,广州510006
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-01 修回日期:2019-01-31 出版日期:2019-03-20 发布日期:2019-03-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨忍(1984-),男,贵州毕节人,博士,副教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为乡村地理学、城乡发展与土地利用。E-mail:yangren0514@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871177,41801088,41401190);广州市科技计划项目(201707010097)

Evolution and regional model of rural development in the Pearl River Delta Region, China, under rapid transformation development

Ren YANG1(), Yanchun CHEN1, Jianzhou GONG2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University/Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. College of Geographic Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2018-09-01 Revised:2019-01-31 Online:2019-03-20 Published:2019-03-25

摘要:

在乡村振兴战略背景下,系统梳理珠三角地区的乡村发展演变历程及其主要地域模式,对中国乡村发展和振兴的科学路径选择具有重要参考价值。珠三角地区的乡村发展演变历经了4个阶段。① 1978年以前,传统乡村发展阶段。在国际市场需求刺激下出现“弃田筑塘,废稻树桑”,逐渐形成桑基鱼塘的有机循环农业生产模式,呈现出传统农业景观。② 1978—2000年,工业化驱动发展阶段。以乡镇企业嫁接外资形式推动了自下而上的工业化和城镇化,乡村空间逐渐形成了“生活居住+农业生产+工业生产”三位一体的功能结构,空间分化与混杂性特征显著。③ 2000—2008年,城市化与都市化双轨并行阶段。政府主导的城市土地开发和基础设施投资建设,促使珠三角地区逐渐演变为“大集聚,小分散”的城乡发展转型空间格局。④ 2008年至今,都市化驱动乡村急剧转型阶段。珠三角都市圈建设进程加快,城乡体系逐步向一体化和网络化发展,乡村地区的产业发展趋向多元分化,乡村破碎化的非正规空间促使形成全球城市区域下马赛克式分布的空间格局。基于不同区位的外部性和内生性因素的差异性,珠三角地区的乡村发展模式可归纳为城市区域型、近郊型、远郊型等不同地域类型。在乡村发展转型过程中,外部性的环境变化、内部要素分化与重构机制直接影响到乡村振兴的科学路径和模式选择。

关键词: 乡村发展, 工业化, 城市化, 地域模式, 乡村振兴, 珠三角地区

Abstract:

This paper systematically reviews the evolution of rural development and major regional models in the Pearl River Delta Region, within the context of a rural revitalization strategy. This review provides solid scientific bases for the selection of rural development and revitalization strategies in China. Rural development in the Pearl River Delta has experienced four stages. The first stage, called “traditional rural development”, took place before 1978. In response to international market demands, a large amount of farmland was converted into ponds, for the cultivation of rice and mulberry: the land started to be cultivated intensively and the “mulberry-dike-fish-pond complex” gradually formed, showing the traditional agricultural landscape. The second stage (1978-2000) was driven by industrialization. In the context of two international industrial transfers, foreign investments have been acquired by township enterprises; additionally, the bottom-up approach to industrialization and urbanization gradually created a functional structure known as “living + agricultural production + industrial production. ” The “de-villagization” of industry promoted a continuous differentiation of the rural space: it resulted in plaque-like industrial and urban spaces, planar-like agricultural production spaces, and point-like rural living spaces. The third stage (2000-2008) saw the coexistence of urbanization and metropolitanization. Government-led urban land developments and new investments in infrastructure construction, gradually transformed the Pearl River Delta region into an urban-rural “large cluster, small scatter” area. The fourth stage, a period of rapid transformation and rural under-urbanization, started in 2008 and still continues at present: the Pearl River Delta metropolitan area has undergone a process of rapid construction, the urban and rural systems have been gradually integrated and networked, and the industrial development of rural areas has diversified. The presence of fragmented informal space has led to the formation of mosaic-like spatial patterns under metropolitan area. Based on the differences in externalities and endogenous factors at different locations, the rural development models in the Pearl River Delta region can be classified into city, suburbs, and far-suburbs. In conclusion, external environmental changes and internal factors (i.e., differentiation, reconstruction) seem to directly affect the direction and modality of rural development and revitalization.

Key words: rural development, industrialization, urbanization, areal model, rural revitalization, Pearl River Delta Region