地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 508-526.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190097

• 观点与争鸣 • 上一篇    下一篇

西方社会文化地理学新范式的缘由、内涵及意义

郭文   

  1. 南京农业大学人文与社会发展学院,南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-29 修回日期:2019-11-21 出版日期:2020-03-20 发布日期:2020-05-20
  • 作者简介:郭文(1978-),男,山西汾西人,博士后,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为社会文化地理,新马克思主义地理和空间的生产。E-mail: guowen@njau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971186)

The reasons, connotations and significance of the new paradigm of western social and cultural geography

GUO Wen   

  1. College of Humanities and Social Development, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
  • Received:2019-01-29 Revised:2019-11-21 Online:2020-03-20 Published:2020-05-20

摘要:

近年来,西方社会文化地理学新范式在中国地理学界受到“热捧”,但也有学者对此存有分歧、质疑、困惑和焦虑,认为新范式“缺少地理味”“跑偏了”。在梳理西方人文地理学派思想及其范式演变的基础上,对新范式的出场背景、基本议题和内涵及意义进行了剖析。研究认为:① 西方社会文化地理学新范式倡导的“人之主观意念”“理论转向”“空间间性关联”“伦理道德及本体生成”,既是对以计量革命为特征的实证主义和空间科学,以及伯克利学派“文化超有机体”的反思,也是对第二次世界大战以来日益凸显的增长全球化和全球本土化,引致的复杂社会空间和文化认知的新阐释。② 在研究视角和对象上,新范式倡导“人之主观意念”,并确立“人”在地理学中的位置和对“地”的人文主义说明;通过社会文化等“理论转向”滤镜,预见社会空间的可能性,以及社会文化的意义和价值;通过“空间间性关联”滤镜,引导人们对多种空间,尤其是空间关系的关注;通过“伦理道德及本体生成”滤镜,强化社会文化地理的道德实践和人性提升,重构人与自我、人与社会、人与自然环境的和谐共生;③ 新范式用一种独特的方式,阐释地理环境和人类活动空间进程和交织的社会经济及文化发生动因,是人类对社会文化和自然环境实践认知演变中的一次重大变革,代表一种新的地理学哲学观和思维观。④ 中国学术界对新范式之所以存在不同声音,原因之一是研究者对新旧人文地理学范式的哲学认知缺乏深度对话,另一原因是学术界针对新范式的理论阐释不足。未来社会文化地理学的中国学派,需要主动拥抱并吸收西方前沿理论的合理内容,在此基础上参与建构新的学科范式,积极回应反映时代中国和世界的重大问题。

关键词: 西方社会文化地理, 范式创新, 内涵与意义, 发展借鉴

Abstract:

In recent years, the new paradigm of Western social and cultural geography has become a research hotspot in the domestic geographic circles, but some scholars have different opinions and argue that the new paradigm lacks the professional characteristics of geography and deviates from the traditional research paradigm. On the basis of combing the thoughts of Western humanistic geography school and the evolution of its paradigm, this paper analyses the background, basic issues, connotation and significance of the new paradigm of the new paradigm of Western social and cultural geography. The results show that the new paradigm of Western social and cultural geography advocates subjective ideas in geography, the turn of social and cultural theory, in addition, it also includes issues of "interrelationships" and "ethics, morality and ontogenesis". It is not only a reflection on positivism and space science characterized by the metrological revolution, as well as the "cultural superorganism" of the Berkeley School, but also a new interpretation paradigm of complex social space and cultural cognition caused by the growing globalization and global localization that have become increasingly prominent since the Second World War. In terms of research perspectives and objects, the new paradigm incorporates "human" into the study of geography and establishes the position of "human" in geography. The new paradigm predicts the possibility of social space as well as the significance and value of social culture through the filter of "theoretical turn". It guides people's attention to various spaces, especially spatial relations through the filter of "interrelationships", and strengthens the moral practice of social cultural geography and the promotion of human nature, reconstructs the harmonious coexistence of human and self, human and society and human and the natural environment through the filter of "ethics, morality and ontogenesis". The new paradigm uses a unique way to explain the geographic environment and the social, economic and cultural causes of the spatial process and interaction of human activities, which is a major change in the evolution of human cognition of natural and social environment practice and represents a new philosophy and thinking of geography. One of the reasons why there are different opinions on the new paradigm in Chinese academic circles is that researchers lack in-depth dialogue on the philosophical cognition of the old and new human geography paradigms, and the other reason is that the academic circles' theoretical interpretation of the new paradigm is insufficient. In the future, the Chinese school of social and cultural geography needs to actively embrace and absorb the reasonable contents of the western frontier theories, and construct a new discipline paradigm to actively respond to major issues reflecting China and the world on the basis of careful reference to the Western theories.

Key words: western social and cultural geography, paradigm innovation, connotation and significance, reference for development