地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 1182-1199.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190368

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆绿洲乡村聚落空间分布特征及其影响因素

林金萍1,2, 雷军1(), 吴世新1, 杨振1,2, 李建刚1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-13 修回日期:2020-01-06 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 雷军
  • 作者简介:林金萍(1991-),女,广东潮州人,硕士,主要研究方向为乡村地理与城乡关系。E-mail: linjinping17@mails.ucas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项“泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设”课题(XDA20040400)

Spatial pattern and influencing factors of oasis rural settlements in Xinjiang, China

LIN Jinping1,2, LEI Jun1(), WU Shixin1, YANG Zhen1,2, LI Jiangang1,2   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
    2.College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-05-13 Revised:2020-01-06 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-07-20
  • Contact: LEI Jun

摘要:

乡村聚落研究是乡村地理学研究的核心内容,探讨地域乡村聚落空间特征与影响机理,具有重要的理论与现实意义。利用遥感解译数据,借助空间分析方法揭示新疆绿洲乡村聚落空间分布特征,结合地理探测器技术探讨其空间分异的影响因素;选择阿勒泰样区、天山北坡样区、吐鲁番样区和喀什样区进一步明晰不同自然和社会经济背景下绿洲乡村聚落空间分异的主控因素。结果表明:新疆绿洲乡村聚落密度小、规模小,以集聚模式为主,邻近乡镇中心、道路、河流分布特征明显;乡村聚落空间分布受到乡镇道路可达性、到县城道路可达性、坡度、到河流邻近距离、气温和高程等因素影响,而受社会、经济因素影响不显著。四大样区乡村聚落分布的主控因素存在明显差异,应依据各样区村落发展基础与主控因素,探索不同的乡村聚落空间优化模式与发展振兴方向。

关键词: 乡村聚落, 空间分布, 影响因素, 样区, 新疆

Abstract:

The study of rural settlements is the core content of rural geography. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to explore the spatial characteristics and influencing factors of regional rural settlements. Based on the remote sensing interpretation data, the spatial pattern and influencing factors of rural settlements in Xinjiang oasis areas were analyzed by using the methods of spatial analysis and geographical detector technique. To reveal the rural settlement spatial influencing mechanism, and explore the rural settlement space reconstruction and optimization approaches, we selected Altay area, north slope of Tianshan Mountains area, Turpan Basin area and Kashgar area as sample areas for further analysis. The results show that: the oasis rural settlements in Xinjiang are small both in density and in scale, and are mainly concentrated in the distribution mode, characterized by a spatial distribution pattern of "dense plain, sparse mountain, no village desert", which presents two major density core belts of oasis on the north and south slopes of Tianshan Mountains. Firstly, rural settlements are mainly distributed in middle- and high-altitude areas (500-3500 m), flat and gentle slope areas (<15 °) and warm areas (annual average temperature 0-10 ℃). Secondly, rural settlements are distributed near the center of towns, which are less affected by the radiation from the center of cities and counties. Finally, rural settlements obviously gather along the roads and rivers, with the feature that the closer they are to the roads and rivers, the larger the number and scale of rural settlements. The spatial distribution of rural settlements in Xinjiang is mainly influenced by factors such as the accessibility of roads to towns, the accessibility of roads to counties, slope, proximity to rivers, temperatures and elevations. In other words, under these extreme geographical and ecological environment conditions in arid areas, the natural environment and geographical conditions are still the main influencing factors, and the traffic factors play an important guiding role, while the influence of economic and social factors are not significant. There are obvious differences in natural conditions and social-economic development levels in the four sample areas, and so do the dominant factors of the distribution of rural settlements. The north slope of Tianshan Mountains area and Kashgar area are affected by road accessibility factors, while Altay area and Turpan Basin area by terrain and water source, respectively. Road accessibility factors have different influences on the spatial distribution of rural settlements in various areas. In the future, the optimization and development of rural settlements should focus on the strengthening of the planning of transportation lines and the improvement of transportation infrastructure, so as to promote the flow and sharing of urban-rural elements, as well as the integration and sustainable development of urban and rural areas.

Key words: rural settlements, spatial distribution, influencing factor, sample area, Xinjiang