地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 2281-2294.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190630

• 专栏:典型乡村产业转型与发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

苏南乡村旅游空间集聚特征与结构研究

李涛1,2(), 朱鹤3(), 王钊4, 陶卓民1,2, 陶慧5   

  1. 1.南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    2.江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
    3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    4.湖南师范大学旅游学院,长沙 410081
    5.中央民族大学管理学院,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-25 修回日期:2020-06-11 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 朱鹤
  • 作者简介:李涛(1988-),男,山东临沂人,博士,讲师,主要研究领域为乡村旅游与旅游投资,尤其关注乡村旅游集聚发展及投资结构与体系,区域旅游投资差异等内容。E-mail: nnulitao@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41801139);国家自然科学基金项目(42001155);国家自然科学基金项目(41901180);国家自然科学基金项目(41571139)

The cluster characteristics and structural model about rural tourism in South Jiangsu

LI Tao1,2(), ZHU He3(), WANG Zhao4, TAO Zhuomin1,2, TAO Hui5   

  1. 1. School of Geographic Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. School of Tourism, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    5. School of Management, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2019-07-25 Revised:2020-06-11 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-12-20
  • Contact: ZHU He

摘要:

空间集聚是乡村旅游开发的重要趋势,也是促进乡村旅游产业集约化、高质量发展,进一步助推乡村经济振兴的重要路径。为深刻认识经济发达地区乡村旅游集聚发展特征,以苏南地区为案例地进行实证分析,结果表明:① 空间集聚已成为苏南乡村旅游开发的显著特征,但星级景点和节庆活动间以及不同市域间乡村旅游集聚特征差异显著。② 苏南乡村旅游空间集聚存在自然环境和社会经济的双重约束特征;在地理环境要素组合上表现出明显地距离衰减规律,在社会经济要素组合上表现出严格地门槛要求;其中,距水域2 km以内、海拔100 m以下、城镇人口密度达到1万人/km2、等级公路密度1 km/km2、旅游花费密度10万元/km2、可支配收入密度300万元/km2区域是乡村旅游集聚开发的合理区间。③ 当前苏南乡村旅游空间集聚结构呈现散点状层级式特征。研究认为,它是分别受星级景点和节庆活动的主导与弥合功能影响,由多节点网络式与双核心卫星式互动转化而形成的。本研究针对乡村旅游空间集聚特征和结构演化规律的相关发现,以期为实践中更好运用集聚开发模式推动乡村旅游发展提供理论支持。

关键词: 乡村旅游, 集聚开发, 时空特征, 结构模式, 苏南地区

Abstract:

Rural tourism plays an irreplaceable important role in promoting targeted poverty alleviation, bridging the differences between urban and rural areas, stimulating the rural vitality and solving the issues on agriculture, countryside and farmers. So it is urgent to enhance efficient and intensive development of rural tourism. Under the new background about upgraded consumption environment, rural tourism increasingly becomes sophisticated, personalized, ecological and quality-oriented. At the same time, the tendency of rural tourism is inclined to the places with abundant resources, convenient transportation, high-distinctive space. Agglomeration development of rural tourism has become a significant feature in South Jiangsu. The paper analyzes different business entities about rural tourism and draws a conclusion that rural tourism attractions have a more obvious geographical cluster than festivals, but the differences between regions have been narrowed since 2005. What's more, the regional rural tourism cluster evolution presents a characteristic of dual constraint from the natural environment and the socio-economic performance. In the perspective of natural environment, with increasing distance from the waters and altitude elevation, the scale of rural tourism rapidly decreases and performs the rule of distance attenuation. The overall size of the main business presents a "peak-like" distribution in different dimensions of elevation. In the perspective of socio-economic performance, rural tourism cluster evolution performs a clear social and economic characteristic of the threshold requirement. Specifically, the urban population density of 10,000 people per km2, grade highway density of 1000 meter per km2, tourist spending density of 100,000 yuan per km2, the disposable income density of 3 million yuan per km2 are the optional rural tourism cluster space. Economic and social development, leisure and consumption growth are the fundamental driving force of rural tourism cluster. On the other hand, the evolution of rural tourism spatial structure presents diverse characteristics in South Jiangsu: rural tourism attractions show a multi-node network structure, and rural tourism festivals present dual-core with a satellite structure, while the evolution of rural tourism shows scattered hierarchy structure. Based on the above, in particular, to understand the spatial radiation effects of rural tourism spatial cluster evolution, the paper puts forward the view that rural tourism cluster is to boost the construction of rural tourism and ability and to make breakthroughs in building the holistic tourism destination, which may arouse heated discussions in academic fields.

Key words: rural tourism, cluster revolution, spatio-temporal feature, structural model, South Jiangsu