地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 2249-2267.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191039

• 专栏:典型乡村产业转型与发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

乡村旅游地文化胁迫类型、格局与机理研究——以苏州东山镇为例

徐冬1(), 黄震方2(), 洪学婷2, 李东晔2, 沈伟丽2   

  1. 1.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210046
    2.南京师范大学地理科学学院,江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-29 修回日期:2020-04-27 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄震方
  • 作者简介:徐冬(1992-),男,河南开封人,博士,主要研究方向为旅游地理与旅游规划。E-mail:xudong_njnu@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671137);国家自然科学基金项目(41871141);国家自然科学基金项目(41771147);江苏省研究生科研与实践创新计划项目(KYCX19_0764)

Types, spatial pattern and mechanism of cultural stress of rural tourism destination: A case study of Dongshan town in Suzhou

XU Dong1(), HUANG Zhenfang2(), HONG Xueting2, LI Dongye2, SHEN Weili2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China
    2. School of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2019-11-29 Revised:2020-04-27 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-12-20
  • Contact: HUANG Zhenfang

摘要:

快速城镇化背景下乡村旅游地文化日益受到冲击,并表现出衰落的现象已是客观不争的事实。紧跟新时期乡村振兴战略和文旅融合发展趋势,综合运用质性研究和空间计量方法,以苏州东山镇为例,探索了乡村旅游地文化胁迫类型、格局与机理,结果表明:① 乡村旅游地文化胁迫量表包含23个题项、5个维度,即“自然景观文化胁迫”“聚落景观文化胁迫”“生产生活文化胁迫”“人际交往文化胁迫”“精神仪式文化胁迫”;② 乡村文化胁迫空间多呈沿街、邻水分布,各维乡村文化胁迫空间分布差异较大。乡村文化胁迫空间总体上呈显著集聚,其中生产生活文化最易受到旅游开发胁迫而表现出空间受胁症状;③ 乡村文化胁迫空间具有多集核分级分布的核心-外围分布模式,且随着旅游开发程度的提高其空间集聚程度显著提升,各维乡村文化胁迫空间集聚特征差异较大,其中聚落景观文化胁迫具有“大聚集、小分散”的空间特征,且与总体最为类似;④ 乡村旅游地文化胁迫产生的原因可以归纳为个体和整体两个层面,个体层面的社会属性和观念认知差异,以及整体层面的基础条件、社会发展和政策宣传共同作用着乡村旅游地文化胁迫的产生和发展。

关键词: 乡村旅游地, 乡村文化, 空间格局, 胁迫机理, 东山镇

Abstract:

Under the background of rapid urbanization, the culture of rural tourism destination is increasingly impacted, and the decline of rural culture has become an indisputable fact. Following the development trend of the rural revitalization strategy and integration of culture and tourism in the new era of China, taking Dongshan Town in Suzhou city as an example, we explored the types, spatial pattern and mechanism of cultural stress in rural tourism destinations by using qualitative research and spatial measurement methods. The results show that: (1) the scale of cultural stress of rural tourism destination constructed by the grounded theory and questionnaire survey contains 23 items and 5 dimensions, namely natural landscape culture stress, settlement landscape culture stress, production and living culture stress, interpersonal culture stress and spiritual ritual culture stress. (2) According to the results of GIS spatial analysis, the rural cultural stress space is mostly distributed along the street and water. Traffic jams are the most common stress symptoms in rural areas at the early stage of tourism development. With the development of tourism, the problems which are closely related to the life of local residents, such as water pollution and price rise, are becoming increasingly prominent. Otherwise, the spatial distribution characteristics of the cultural stress in each dimension are quite different. The general space of rural culture stress shows significant agglomeration, among which the production and living culture is most vulnerable to tourism development and shows symptoms of spatial stress. (3) The rural culture stress space has the core-peripheral pattern with multi-core hierarchical distribution, and its spatial agglomeration degree will be significantly improved with the development of tourism. There is a big difference among the spatial agglomeration characteristics of the cultural stress in each dimension. Among them, the settlement landscape cultural stress has the characteristic of large aggregation and small dispersion. (4) Factors affecting cultural stress of rural tourism destination can be identified into the individual and whole levels. The differences in social attributes and conceptual cognition at the individual level, as well as the basic conditions, social development and policy propaganda at the whole level, play a role in the emergence and development of cultural stress in rural tourism destinations.

Key words: rural tourism destination, rural culture, spatial pattern, stress mechanism, Dongshan town