地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 2233-2248.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020191139

• 专栏:典型乡村产业转型与发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

边境旅游地乡村转型及可持续发展路径——云南打洛口岸地区的民族志研究

高俊1(), 王灵恩2(), 黄巧3   

  1. 1.中山大学旅游学院, 广州 510275
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3.广东外语外贸大学研究生院,广州 510420
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-30 修回日期:2020-05-15 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 王灵恩
  • 作者简介:高俊(1990-),男,湖南祁东人,博士,研究方向为边境旅游与边境地区发展。E-mail:gaoj63@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41701620);国家自然科学基金项目(41901162);中国博士后科学基金项目(2019M653260)

Transformation of rural border tourism destination and its sustainable development path: An ethnographic study of Daluo port area in Yunnan

GAO Jun1(), WANG Ling'en2(), HUANG Qiao3   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Graduate School of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510420, China
  • Received:2019-12-30 Revised:2020-05-15 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-12-20
  • Contact: WANG Ling'en

摘要:

边境地区是国家社会经济发展的特殊功能区,旅游业在其乡村转型中扮演重要角色。基于民族志研究方法,分析近30年来云南打洛口岸地区的乡村重构过程,厘清旅游驱动下的边境乡村转型机制,进而识别边境乡村旅游地的可持续发展路径。研究发现:① 旅游发展驱动下,商品农业兴起,引发以土地、资本和劳动力为核心的乡村发展要素的重大变化——土地增值、资本积累、劳动力发展;② 传统自给农业随之衰落,形成以商品农业为主、旅游等非农产业为辅的产业结构,当地社区相应形成以商品农业生计为主、非农生计为辅的多元生计结构,经济收入大幅增长;③ 随着边民生计的变迁和生活的现代化,传统民族界限逐渐模糊,多民族共同繁荣发展,国家吸纳边民为边境治理主体以应对区域内非传统安全问题;④ 在空间层面,耕地逐渐“非粮化”,生态空间缩减,集镇建设向口岸聚集;⑤ 随着“人-地-业”的结构性变化,打洛口岸地区朝多功能乡村发展转型,边境乡村的地缘安全功能、文化功能和生态功能凸显。最后,提出边境乡村旅游地的可持续发展路径,以期为边境地区的稳定与繁荣提供参考。

关键词: 边境旅游, 乡村重构, 少数民族, 商品农业

Abstract:

Borderlands are margins of nation-states where different social systems meet. Against the backdrop of the Belt and Road Initiative, borderlands are becoming strategic points and forefronts for China's "opening-up". With the deepening of China's opening-up, tourism industry is now considered an important driver for socio-economic development at China's border areas. Drawing on ethnographic fieldworks conducted during the period of 2014-2019, this study identifies the features of rural restructuring in Daluo port area of Yunnan on the China-Myanmar border, and unravels how tourism has affected the transformation of the area. Findings show that along with tourism development, cash crops plantation emerged, which led to significant changes in rural development factors, including the surge of land value, increase of capital, and development of human resources. This saw the decline of traditional self-reliant rice agriculture, and the formation of a market economy dominated by cash crops plantation, supplemented by non-agriculture sectors such as tourism. The border people thus turned to cash crops plantation and non-agriculture sectors for livelihood, which resulted in significant income growth, and their pursuit of modern lives. This, in turn, helped dissolve traditional ethnic boundaries in the area, where all ethnic groups integrated into China's national development. With the emergence of non-traditional security problems, the Chinese state increasingly enhanced its presence at the border, and started to involve the border people in border governance, which reflected that the socio-economic transformation, land use and its spatial pattern changed significantly, including agricultural land for non-food crops cultivation, decrease of ecological space, and conglomeration of town construction land around the port. With the structural changes related to "people-land-industry", geopolitical security function, cultural function, and ecological function of the rural border have become evident, and the rural border developed towards multifunctional countryside. Based on these findings, this study identifies sustainable development paths for rural border tourism destinations. These paths include following the "agriculture +" vision to develop agricultural produces processing sector, rural tourism, and other non-agricultural sectors, supporting border people in borderland governance and development, and protecting the agricultural land and monitoring the ecological environment. This study contributes to the understanding of rural transformation and comprehensive impacts of tourism in China's borderland.

Key words: border tourism, rural restructuring, ethnic minority, cash crops plantation