地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 583-596.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200270

• 学术论评 • 上一篇    

行动者网络理论与人文地理学的交互关系研究——重构、争辩与反思

袁超1,2(), 陈品宇1,2, 孔翔1,2, 吴栋1,2   

  1. 1.华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2.华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-03 接受日期:2020-06-08 出版日期:2021-02-10 发布日期:2021-04-10
  • 作者简介:袁超(1990-),男,安徽淮南人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为文化地理与乡村旅游。 E-mail: yuanccg1992@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771156);中央高校基本科研业务费项目华东师范大学共享交叉基金(人文社会科学)项目(2019ECNU-GXJC002)

Research on the interaction between actor-network theory and human geography: Reconstruction, debate and reflection

YUAN Chao1,2(), CHEN Pinyu1,2, KONG Xiang1,2, WU Dong1,2   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2020-04-03 Accepted:2020-06-08 Online:2021-02-10 Published:2021-04-10

摘要:

行动者网络理论(ANT)被用于诸多学科,对突破地理学中的二元思维具有重要意义。通过梳理和比较ANT与人文地理学的相关理论,发现其时空观具有相通之处。广义对称性原则将ANT与人文地理学链接,使得人文地理学中描述的方法论、自然和物质的重要性及网络被重新认识。地理学者对ANT的批判主要围绕社会解释与网络解释、传统批判的合法性、人与非人对称的真实性与有效性等方面展开。一些地理学者试图使用拼装(assemblage)思维来弥补ANT的不足,将欲望、虚拟、流等概念补充进来,使之更为贴近现实世界。由于扇贝实验的案例研究对人文地理学者理解与运用ANT影响较大,文章解析了该案例中蕴含的转译逻辑。最后,阐明ANT在经验研究中需要反思之处,并讨论了可进一步研究的方向及对人文地理学的启示。

关键词: 行动者网络理论, 二元思维, 广义对称性, 物质性, 拼装

Abstract:

The actor-network theory (ANT), originated from the sociology of science, has been widely used in many disciplines. In the field of geography, this theory tends to break through the long-standing dualism between global and local, nature and society, etc. Much of the theoretical work has been done to understand the complex and obscure connotation of ANT. For instance, representative human geography scholars like Jonathan Murdoch and Sarah Whatmore proposed to cancel many dualistic presuppositions in geography, thus rethinking the nature of geographical knowledge through ANT. However, the current empirical studies in Chinese academic world show the trends of oversimplification and misuse of this concept by reason of lacking a sufficient understanding of the relationship between ANT and human geography. Therefore, the paper aims to investigate the interaction between the actor-network theory and human geography. Specifically, it is found that there are overlaps and similarities in the aspect of temporal-spatial view by summarizing and comparing ANT and the related theories of human geography. More importantly, the principle of general symmetry links ANT with human geography, which makes us re-recognize the description methodology, the significance of nature and materiality, and the network in human geography. Nevertheless, the understanding of ANT is still controversial and has been critically discussed, ranging from the aspects of social interpretation and network interpretation, the legitimacy of traditional criticism and the authenticity and validity of human-nonhuman symmetry. To accommodate the neglected and insufficient description of the real world, some geographers bring in assemblage thinking, including concepts like desire, virtual and flux. In addition, as the profound impact of the case study of the scallop experiment on the understanding and application of ANT by human geographers, the article analyzes the latent translation logic contained in this case. Finally, the study points out key issues that need to be reflected in the application of actor-network theory in empirical research, and indicates the possible directions for further research from the perspectives of human and nature, scientific knowledge production and dissemination. In summary, this paper discusses the enlightenment of ANT to human geography, which provides more possibilities of dialogues between different studies based on ANT, enhancing the innovation and geographical knowledge spillovers.

Key words: actor-network theory, dualistic, general symmetry, materiality, assemblage