地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (6): 1543-1553.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020210138

• •    下一篇

再论青藏高原范围

张镱锂1,2,3(), 李炳元1, 刘林山1, 郑度1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心,北京 100101
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-19 接受日期:2021-05-06 出版日期:2021-06-10 发布日期:2021-08-10
  • 作者简介:张镱锂(1962-),男,吉林长岭人,研究员,博士生导师,研究方向为生物地理学和自然地理综合研究。E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0603);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA 20040201)

Redetermine the region and boundaries of Tibetan Plateau

ZHANG Yili1,2,3(), LI Bingyuan1, LIU Linshan1, ZHENG Du1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2021-02-19 Accepted:2021-05-06 Published:2021-06-10 Online:2021-08-10

摘要:

伴随青藏高原研究的深入,高原内外多学科研究程度和认识的提高,及地理大数据、地球观测科学和技术的进步,对青藏高原范围提出了新的要求。本研究系统论述了确定青藏高原范围的原则、依据和方法,分析探讨了高原地貌宏观结构(高原面、高原内低盆地与高原边缘河谷低地等)和周围边界各自然地段构成的基本特征。采用ArcMap软件,通过遥感影像和DEM数据及新资料对高原地貌比较研究,实现了1:100万比例尺地图精度的青藏高原范围的界定。研究表明,青藏高原北起西昆仑山-祁连山山脉北麓,南抵喜马拉雅山等山脉南麓,南北最宽达1560 km;西自兴都库什山脉和帕米尔高原西缘,东抵横断山等山脉东缘,东西最长约3360 km;范围为25°59′30″N~40°1′0″N、67°40′37″E~104°40′57″E,总面积为308.34万km2,平均海拔约4320 m。在行政区域上,青藏高原分布于中国、印度、巴基斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、阿富汗、尼泊尔、不丹、缅甸、吉尔吉斯斯坦等9个国家。其中中国境内的青藏高原面积约258.09万km2(占高原总面积的83.7%),平均海拔约4400 m,分布在西藏、青海、甘肃、四川、云南和新疆等6省区,西藏和青海两省区主体分布在高原范围内(约占高原总面积的60.6%)。

关键词: 青藏高原, 确定范围原则, 方法依据, 范围边界, 高原特征数据

Abstract:

With the advances in research of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the deep understanding of multi-disciplinary research, coupled with the progress of geographic big-data, earth observation science and technology, this research systematically discussed the principles, methods and basis for determining the boundaries of the TP. It analyzed the macro landform structures (plateau surface, low basin and deep-cut valley lowland on the edge of the TP) within the TP and the fundamental characteristics of the geographic units' composition in TP's surrounding areas. Based on the high resolution remote sensing images, DEM data and geomorphologic maps etc., the boundary of TP with a 1:1000000 scale is defined through a comparative study of geomorphological features with the support of Arcmap 10.5. The results show that the Tibetan Plateau stretches from the foot of the Himalayas in the south to the foot of the Kunlun Mountains and the Qilian Mountains in the north, with a total length of 1560 km. While it spans about 3360 km from the Hindu Kush Mountains and the Pamir Plateau in the west, to the eastern foot of Hengduan Mountains in the east. The TP, lying between 25°59′30″N-40°1′0″N and 67°40′37″E-104°40′57″E, covers a total area of 3083.44 × 103 km2, with an average altitude of 4320 m. Geographically, the TP is located in Southwest China and eight other countries including India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Kyrgyzstan. The TP in Chinese section has an area of 2580.90 × 10 3 km2, accounting for around 83.7% of the total area, with an average altitude of 4400 m. In China's part, the TP spans in six provincial-level regions: Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), Qinghai province, Gansu province, Sichuan province, Yunnan province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Among them, the main parts of TAR and Qinghai are the major section of the TP, which accounted for 60.6% of the total area of the plateau.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, principles for determining the boundary, method basis, boundary, plateau characteristic data