地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (9): 1721-1736.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201309014

• 城市与产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国上市企业总部的区位分布和集聚特征

潘峰华1, 刘作丽2, 夏亚博1, 莫开峰1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院城市与区域规划研究所, 北京100875;
    2. 北京市社会与经济发展研究所, 北京100120
  • 收稿日期:2012-06-10 修回日期:2013-02-15 出版日期:2013-09-10 发布日期:2013-09-10
  • 作者简介:潘峰华(1982-),男,江苏金坛人,博士,讲师,中国地理学会会员,美国地理学会会员,主要研究方向为经济地理,金融地理,城市与区域发展。E-mail:panfenghua@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室2012年度开放基金资助课题;国家自然科学基金青年项目(41201107);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(2012LYB36)

Location and agglomeration of headquarters of public listed firms within China’s urban system

PAN Fenghua1, LIU Zuoli2, XIA Yabo1, MO Kaifeng1   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Institute of Urban and Regional Planning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Beijing Municipal Institute for Economic and Social Development, Beijing 100120, China
  • Received:2012-06-10 Revised:2013-02-15 Online:2013-09-10 Published:2013-09-10

摘要: 大企业总部是决策和控制中心,掌握着巨大的资源分配权,其决策将影响到地区甚至国家的发展。因此,大企业总部的数量关系到一个国家和地区的竞争力和影响力,研究大企业总部的分布和集聚有重要的理论和政策意义。本研究考察了截至2011年底中国2320家上市企业总部在城市的分布及集聚特征,有以下主要发现:①中国的上市企业总部分布和总体产业空间格局较为一致,即高度集聚在我国的东部沿海城市,尤其是长三角、珠三角和京津冀地区。②中国的企业总部高度集聚在高行政级别的城市,具体而言即大量集中在首都、直辖市、副省级和省会城市。③北京、上海和深圳是中国企业总部最为集聚的城市,不仅企业总部数量最多,而且企业的规模也最大,尤其是北京拥有超强的掌控力。而且,北京、上海和深圳几乎在所有产业领域都表现出绝对的领先优势。④和国际上发达国家比较,中国的企业总部在空间上的集聚程度较低,东部沿海发达地区的总部数量占全国比重仍在上升,北京、上海和深圳等大城市的上市企业总部数量增长要明显快于全国其他地区,其地位还在进一步强化。⑤企业总部的数量和城市的金融业发展水平、机场条件、经济规模、经济全球化水平、城市的规模等级、行政等级等呈现出高度的正向相关关系。

关键词: 上市企业, 企业总部, 总部经济, 集聚, 城市体系, 中国

Abstract: Headquarters of large firms are the commanding centers of the economy. It is of particular interests to investigate the headquarters' distribution in China, a fast growing transition economy. However, little attention has been paid to the understanding of spatial pattern of headquarters of public companies, which dominates China's economy today. Using a comprehensive dataset of Chinese public listed firms, this paper seeks to find out the spatial pattern of public companies' headquarters and its evolution over time. First, headquarters of public listed firms are mostly located in the eastern China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin region. Second, headquarters of the public companies are inclined to be proximate to political centers at different geographical scales. Beijing, as the capital of China, houses most of the headquarters of public firms, and the provincial capital city usually accommodates the largest number of headquarters within its province. Third, Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen are the top three cities in terms of the number of public companies' headquarters as well as the scale of the firms. The three cities dominate the first three positions in almost all sectors in terms of the number of headquarters. As the capital of China, Beijing dominates and outperforms other cities. Fourth, headquarters of large firms in China are less agglomerated compared to those much developed countries and are becoming more agglomerated in the cities in coastal China. The number of headquarters in Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen is increasing faster compared with other smaller cities. Finally, the number of headquarters is highly correlated with the development of financial industry, airport volume, economic output, globalization, total population, and political level of the city

Key words: public listed firms, corporate headquarters, quarter economy, agglomeration, urban syste