地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (11): 2021-2030.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201311005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

三峡工程蓄水对洞庭湖水环境质量特征的影响

李忠武1,2, 赵新娜1,2, 谢更新3, 袁敏1,2, 姜燕松1,2   

  1. 1. 湖南大学环境科学与工程学院, 长沙410082;
    2. 湖南大学环境生物与控制教育部重点实验室, 长沙410082;
    3. 重庆大学资源与环境学院, 重庆400044
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-06 修回日期:2013-07-15 出版日期:2013-11-10 发布日期:2013-11-10
  • 作者简介:李忠武(1972- ),男,湖南望城人,博士,教授,主要从事环境信息系统研究。E-mail:lizw@hnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271294,40971170);教育部新世纪人才资助项目(NCET-09-330)和湖南省自然科学基金项目(11JJ3041)

Water environmental quality properties of Dongting Lake affected by construction of the Three Gorges Project

LI Zhongwu1,2, ZHAO Xinna1,2, XIE Gengxin3, YUAN Min1,2, JIANG Yansong1,2   

  1. 1. College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, China;
    3. College of Resource and Environmental Science of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
  • Received:2013-03-06 Revised:2013-07-15 Online:2013-11-10 Published:2013-11-10

摘要: 三峡工程的运行给洞庭湖水环境质量造成了直接或间接的影响。本研究运用主成分分析法筛选了水质污染指标,采用基于超标权重的综合水质标识指数法对洞庭湖水质进行了评价,并重点分析了三峡工程蓄水后洞庭湖水环境质量变化特征。主成分分析结果表明,影响洞庭湖水环境质量的主要污染指标为总氮和总磷;典型断面综合水质标识指数评价结果表明,三峡工程的运行对洞庭湖水环境质量变化有一定影响,各典型断面多年综合污染指数高于三峡工程建设前,表现为2003 年前水质多以Ⅲ类为主,2003 年后以Ⅳ类为主;ArcGIS 支持下的洞庭湖水环境质量时空分析表明,三峡工程运行后,洞庭湖水环境污染格局发生变化,表现为局部污染区域发生转移,东洞庭湖及洞庭湖出口污染最重。

关键词: 三峡工程, 水环境质量, 主成分分析法, 水质标识指数法, 洞庭湖

Abstract: The water environmental quality of Dongting Lake has been directly or indirectly influenced by the construction and operation of the Three Gorges Project. In the study, the water pollution indexes were selected by using the principal component analysis. Then the paper evaluated the water quality of Dongting Lake based on overweight comprehensive water quality identification index method, and analyzed the water environmental quality variation after the impounding of the Three Gorges Reservoir. TN and TP were found to be the main pollution indexes through the principal component analysis. The comprehensive water quality identification index of the typical sections indicated that the construction and operation of the Three Gorges Project produced negative effects on the water environmental quality of Dongting Lake for the index was higher than that before the construction. Before 2003, the water quality identification index mainly belonged to class Ⅲ, while after 2003, it mainly belonged to class IV. Temporal and spatial analysis of water environmental quality under the support of ArcGIS showed that there was an obvious change in water environmental pollution distribution after the operation of the Three Gorges Project: some local pollution area transferred to other places, and east Dongting Lake and outlet of the lake were the most polluted areas.

Key words: Three Gorges Project, principal component analysis, water quality identification index method, Dongting Lake