地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (11): 2079-2091.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201311010

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国收费公路基础设施与财务状况的空间格局

王姣娥1, 莫辉辉2, 焦敬娟1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所/区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101;
    2. 中国交通运输协会, 北京100053;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-09 修回日期:2013-06-17 出版日期:2013-11-10 发布日期:2013-11-10
  • 作者简介:王姣娥(1981- ),女,副研究员,主要研究方向为交通运输与区域发展。E-mail:wangje@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-06-02);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所一三五项目(NO.2011RC201,NO. 2012QY004)

Spatial distribution of China’s infrastructures and finance conditions of toll roads

WANG Jiao'e1, MO Huihui2, JIAO Jingjuan1,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modelling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. China Communications and Transportation Association, Beijing 100053, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-01-09 Revised:2013-06-17 Online:2013-11-10 Published:2013-11-10

摘要: 收费公路是公路网系统的重要组成部分,为中国高等级公路(尤其是高速公路)的快速发展起到了重要的作用。自20 世纪80 年代初以来,我国收费公路发展经历了三个阶段:起步探索阶段(1981-1997 年)、快速发展阶段(1998-2003 年)以及规范治理阶段(2004 年以来)。国际比较研究显示,人口、经济总量和国土面积会影响收费公路的规模,而中国收费公路的发展明显偏离了当前的经济发展水平,存在路网规模过大、空间布局不合理的问题。总体上,中国收费公路在空间格局上具有显著的反U型结构——东、西部地区收费公路规模均高于中部地区,且西部地区高于东部地区,与中国东中西地区依次递减的梯度经济格局不协调。收费公路财务指标的投资、收入和支出具有U型空间结构,与经济发展的区域格局不一致;但单位公里的收益水平呈现梯型结构,与中国经济发展的区域格局大体吻合;投资回收期表明中国收费公路总体具有可行的盈利水平,但省级区域差异较大。

关键词: 收费公路, 收费站, 财务, 空间格局, 区域差异

Abstract: Toll roads are an important part of road system, which makes significant contribution to the rapid development of China's high-grade road (especially expressway). Since the 1980s, China's toll roads have experienced three stages: preliminary and exploring stage (1981-1997), rapid development stage (1998-2003), normalizing and management stage (since 2004). According to analysis of the sample of 32 countries, area, GDP, and population are the three major factors influencing the scale of toll roads. However, the development of toll roads in China's has deviated from its economic level, and the scale is larger than that of the reasonable level. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of toll road infrastructure shows an inverse U-shaped pattern, which means that the scale of toll road infrastructure in the western region is higher than that of the eastern region, and then the central region has least. The U-shaped pattern does not correspond with the gradient pattern on economic distribution, which decreases from the east region to the central region and then to the west region. Also, the investment, income, and expenses of toll road have shown the U-shape pattern, different from the economic pattern; Income per km presents the gradient pattern, showing similar trend with the economic distribution. Finally, payback period indicates that China's toll roads have feasible revenue, but provincial difference is huge.

Key words: toll road, toll station, finance, spatial distribution, regional disparity