地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (12): 2257-2269.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201312020

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

巩义市农村居民点空间格局演变及其影响因素

海贝贝1, 李小建*1,2,3, 许家伟3   

  1. 1. 河南大学环境与规划学院, 开封475001;
    2. 河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心, 开封475001;
    3. 河南财经政法大学区域与可持续研究中心, 郑州450002
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-26 修回日期:2013-09-14 出版日期:2013-12-10 发布日期:2013-12-10
  • 通讯作者: 李小建(1954- ),男,河南孟津人,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为经济地理学。E-mail:xjli@henu.edu.cn E-mail:xjli@henu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:海贝贝(1986- ),女,河南郑州人,博士研究生,主要从事村镇体系研究。E-mail:plbeibei2005@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071082,41201131)

Spatio-temporal evolution of rural settlements in Gongyi

HAI Beibei1, LI Xiaojian*1,2,3, XU Jiawei3   

  1. 1. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China;
    2. Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China;
    3. Institute of Regional Sustainable Development, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450002, China
  • Received:2013-03-26 Revised:2013-09-14 Online:2013-12-10 Published:2013-12-10

摘要: 综合运用GIS 技术、景观指数定量分析方法以及空间统计方法,分析河南省巩义市1990-2010 年农村居民点规模结构、空间分布、形态结构的演变特征,探索地形因素、区位因素以及社会经济因素对农村居民点发展变化的影响。结果表明:在快速城镇化背景下,巩义市农村居民点规模扩张明显,集约用地程度较低;居民点斑块形态趋于规则,规划管理效果已开始有初步体现;聚落斑块空间分布聚集特征明显,呈现大斑块低密度分布与小斑块高密度分布格局;但巩义市农村聚落近20 年来整体空间格局变化不大,只是局部集中趋势进一步增加,不仅在平原与丘陵地区具有集中趋势,在其之外的经济快速发展地区的集中趋势亦较为明显。居住空间格局变化与自然条件有关,但在时间与空间的微观层面上区位条件、社会经济因素具有更大的影响。本文对农村居民点的空间布局调整具有一定的政策指导意义。

关键词: 农村居民点, 空间格局, 演变, 巩义

Abstract: Gongyi is the top county of Henan Province in economic development. By using GIS technology, landscape indices and spatial statistical methods, this paper aims to analyze the evolution of the rural settlements, and their spatial distribution and rank-size distribution of landscape patterns from 1990 to 2010, and to investigate the influence of landform, location, social and economic factors on the development of rural settlements in Gongyi. The landscape indexes used in this paper consist of total area (TA), percentage of landscape (PLAD), number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), mean patch size (MPS), patch size standard deviation (PSSD), mean shape index (SHAPE_MN), mean fractal dimension index (FRAC_MN) and aggregation index (AI). With these indexes, this paper characterizes the scale and shape of rural settlement patches. Kernel density estimation method is used to show the density distribution of rural settlements. Then, some spatial methods, e.g. average nearest neighbor, Getis-ord General G and Getis-Ord Gi* are used to explore the distribution pattern and size distribution of rural settlements. The effect factors behind rural settlement changes are divided into three types: geomorphology factors, location factors and socio-economic factors, and then we discuss the influences on the spatial pattern evolution of rural settlements. The main findings of this study are drawn as follows. (1) The size of rural settlements in Gongyi expanded significantly and the level of intensive land use was low. (2) The shape of rural settlement patches appeared to be regular, implying that the effect of planning and management was emerging. (3) In spatial distribution, the rural settlement patches were characterized by agglomeration. There was a general negative correlation between the density distribution and the size distribution, indicating that there was a high density distribution of small rural settlements and vice versa. (4) There was little change in the entire spatial pattern of rural settlements in Gongyi during 1990-2010, but a concentration in local areas was observed. This is true not only for plain and hilly areas, but also for the regions with rapid economic development. (5) These spatial patterns were affected by physical conditions, but in a micro-level spatio-temporal context, location factors and socio-economic factors played an even bigger role. The results of this study may provide policy guidance for restructuring spatial patterns of rural settlements.

Key words: rural settlement, spatial pattern, evolution, Gongyi county in Henan province