地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (3): 439-450.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201403004

• 土地利用与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

聚落形态演变与防洪功能变化的关系——以广东高要地区为例

周彝馨1, 吕唐军2   

  1. 1. 顺德职业技术学院, 佛山528300;
    2. 东华大学, 上海200051
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-02 修回日期:2013-09-16 出版日期:2014-03-10 发布日期:2014-03-10
  • 作者简介:周彝馨(1977-),女,广东佛山人,副教授、博士,一级注册建筑师,主要从事聚落防洪研究。E-mail:sherryyx@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(12YJAZH218);佛山市哲学社会科学规划项目(2013-WJ4)

Research on relationship between the evolution of settlement form and the change of flood control function:A case study from Gaoyao area, Guangdong province

ZHOU Yixin1, LV Tangjun2   

  1. 1. Shunde Polytechnic, Foshan 528300, Guangdong, China;
    2. Donghua University, Shanghai 200051, China
  • Received:2013-04-02 Revised:2013-09-16 Online:2014-03-10 Published:2014-03-10

摘要: 高要地区特殊的地理环境与气候条件造成了历来严重的洪涝灾害。其历史洪水淹浸区和历史堤防范围等历史地理环境与该地区的“八卦”形态聚落分布存在着特殊的“同构”现象。通过图解分析与逻辑推理,解读了“同构关系”的内在成因:“八卦”形态是聚落防洪的最优形态;由于民国以前的高要地区区域防洪未完善,因此位于西江南岸缺乏堤防保护的洪涝区域内大量聚落采用了“八卦”形态的聚落被动防洪方式。高要地区“八卦”形态聚落分布与历代成堤区域的同构关系说明了区域防洪方略与聚落被动防洪方略互为补充、此消彼长的辩证关系。在区域防洪设施未完善的时代,聚落被动防洪方略作为防洪方略的重要补充,导致了聚落的特殊形态;而在区域防洪设施基本完善、有效保护聚落免受洪涝灾害影响的今天,聚落被动防洪方略的存在意义大为减弱,“八卦”形态逐渐瓦解改变。这是聚落形态演变的一个重要动因。区域防洪问题解决后,大量聚落不断地向低洼地区延伸,与当初的被动防洪方略已经互相矛盾。这种扩张是非理性、无序型的扩张。当前对聚落防灾的轻视心态,埋下了洪涝灾害的隐患。

关键词: 聚落形态, 同构, 洪涝灾害, 堤防, 区域防洪, 防洪方略

Abstract: The unique geographical environments and climate conditions have caused severe flood disasters constantly in Gaoyao area. Thus, an "isomorphism relationship" has been established between the historical geographical environments (such as topography, landform, historical flood areas and historical embankment scope) and the settlement distribution of "Bagua (the Eight Diagrams)" pattern in the areas. Through graphic analysis and logical inference, we explain the inherent cause of the "isomorphic relation": "the Eight Diagrams" form is the optimal form for flood control. Due to the incomplete regional flood-control facilities in Gaoyao area before the Republic of China, a large number of settlements located at the south bank of Xijiang River within the flood area lacked levee protection and had to adopt the passive flood-control way with the form of "the Eight Diagrams".
The existence of the "isomorphism relationship" shows that it is complementary and interconnected dialectical between the regional flood control strategy and settlement self-flood control strategy. In the era that the regional flood control strategy had not been perfected, the settlement self-flood control strategy, as an important supplement to the flood control strategy, resulted in a special settlement flood control pattern. However, the present regional flood control strategy is basically perfect and the settlement is effectively protected from flood disaster. The existing significance of the settlement self-flood control strategy is greatly reduced, and settlements' "Eight Diagrams" form gradually disorganized and changed. And this is an important cause of the evolution of settlement form. After the problem of regional flood control was settled, a large number of settlements continuously extended to low-lying areas, which has already contradicted the former passive flood control plan resulting in irrational and unordered expansion. The present mentality in contempt of precautions against natural calamities has caused hidden danger of flood disasters.

Key words: settlement pattern, isomorphism, flood disaster, embankment, regional flood control, flood control strategy