地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (4): 614-624.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201404002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于USLE和GIS的水土流失敏感性空间分析——以河北太行山区为例

王娇1,2, 程维明1, 祁生林3, 周成虎1, 张文杰1,2, 仝迟鸣1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 北京市水科学技术研究院, 北京 100048
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-02 修回日期:2014-03-06 出版日期:2014-04-10 发布日期:2014-04-10
  • 通讯作者: 程维明(1973-),男,甘肃人,博士,副研究员,主要从事数字地形研究。E-mail:chengwm@lreis.ac.cn E-mail:chengwm@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王娇(1990-),女,宁夏人,硕士,主要从事数字地形分析。E-mail:wjiao@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171332); 科技支撑计划项目(2012BAH28B01-03); 科技基础性专项(2011FY110400-2);中科院地理资源所“一三五”战略科技计划项目(2012ZD009) 和重点实验室自主研究项目

Sensitive evaluation and spatial analysis of soil and water loss based on USLE and GIS:Taking Taihang Mountain area of Hebei Province as an example

WANG Jiao1,2, CHENG Weiming1, QI Shenglin3, ZHOU Chenghu1, ZHANG Wenjie1,2, TONG Chiming1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System LREIS, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2013-12-02 Revised:2014-03-06 Online:2014-04-10 Published:2014-04-10

摘要: 以USLE方程为理论指导,遥感影像为主要数据源,基于ArcGIS 进行水土流失敏感性空间分析。选择降雨侵蚀力、土地利用类型、坡度、植被覆盖度等影响因子构建水土流失敏感性评价指标体系,在考虑不同因子影响作用大小的情况下,运用空间分析的方法按标准将水土流失敏感性分为五级;并以河北太行山区为例进行研究,利用危险性指数表征研究区水土流失敏感性大小,分析研究区在不同地理背景下的水土流失敏感区的空间分布特征。研究表明:河北太行山区的水土流失敏感性危险性指数为3.97;空间上水土流失敏感性分等级呈现明显的条带状分布;中度敏感区所占面积比例最大,为39.2%;整体水土流失敏感性中度偏重。

关键词: 水土流失敏感性, 空间分析, 综合评价, GIS, 河北太行山

Abstract: Located in the western part of Hebei province, the Taihang Mountain area is an important ecological protective screen for Beijing, Tianjin and North China Plain so that its ecological vulnerability and sensitivity attract great attention. In this region, topography, climate, drought, poor soils, sparse vegetation and irregular human activities will result in serious soil erosion. With the development of 3S technology in recent years, applying GIS to solve complex spatial problems in environmental fields has become one of the key researches for general geo-information technologic workers. Based on the USLE equation and analysis of factors influencing soil and water loss, the index of soil and water loss sensitivity evaluation was established in the Taihang Mountain area. The appraisal system included rainfall erosion, length-slope factor, vegetation cover, soil type and gully density, and each of the factors that influenced soil erosion sensitivity was calculated using the GIS method. As influencing factors play different roles in soil and water loss, we assigned different weights to them, which were converted to grid pattern and illuminated in thematic map. We calculated the soil and water loss sensitivity by overlaying weighted thematic maps and classified them into five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Then, we used composite index SEPDI to describe the overall soil and water loss sensitivity in the research area and analyzed the spatial distribution of soil and water loss sensitivity under different geographical backgrounds. The results indicated that: (1) The value of SEPDI of the Taihang Mountain area of Hebei province amounted to 3.97, which meant soil and water loss sensitivity in this region presented a tendency from moderate to high; (2) From the perspective of sensitivity spatial distribution, soil erosion sensitivity presented obvious zonal distribution, and moderately sensitive area accounted for the largest proportion of 39.2%; (3) The spatial distribution of soil erosion sensitivity in different geographical backgrounds presented obvious difference. In various land use types, the unused land showed the highest soil erosion sensitivity while the forest and grassland were the lowest. Along with the slope increase, the soil erosion sensitivity of the whole region presented an increasing tendency. In different urban areas, soil erosion sensitivity of Zhangjiakou was the lowest while that of Baoding was the highest. Generally speaking, the sensitivity of each urban area was primarily at moderate level.

Key words: soil and water loss sensitivity, spatial analysis, comprehensive evaluation, GIS, Taihang Mountain area of Hebei Province