地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (4): 674-686.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201404008

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市发展方针的演变调整与城市规模新格局

方创琳   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-06 修回日期:2014-03-12 出版日期:2014-04-10 发布日期:2014-04-10
  • 作者简介:方创琳(1966-),男,甘肃庆阳人,教授,博士生导师,近年来主要从事城市发展与规划研究。E-mail:fangcl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(13&ZD027);国家自然科学基金项目(41371177)

A review of Chinese urban development policy, emerging patterns and future adjustments

FANG Chuanglin   

  1. Institution of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2013-11-06 Revised:2014-03-12 Online:2014-04-10 Published:2014-04-10

摘要: 城市发展方针是指导城市持续健康发展、把握城市发展大局与方向的总体纲领。处在不同发展阶段的城市需要与之相适应的城市发展方针来指导,城市发展的阶段性规律决定了城市发展方针是随着城市发展阶段的变化而调整的,因而不是一成不变的。在对中国近60 多年来城市发展总体方针演变过程与指导效果回顾总结的基础上,客观分析了中国现行城市发展方针的局限性,包括现行城市发展方针与国家城市发展的客观现实不相符合,缺少对城市化重点地区“城市群”的基本表述,对大、中、小城市的划分标准不尽合理,现行城市发展方针指导下的城市体系等级规模结构与行政区划不相协调等。最后提出了调整现行城市发展方针的建议方案,重新划分大、中、小城市的规模标准,将中国城市划分为超大城市(市区常住人口规模≥1000 万人)、特大城市(介于500 万~1000 万人)、大城市(介于100 万~500 万人)、中等城市(介于50 万~100 万人)、小城市(介于10 万~50 万人)、小城镇(<10 万人) 共六个规模等级标准;将新形势下中国城市发展方针调整为:引导发展城市群,严格控制超大和特大城市,合理发展大城市,鼓励发展中等城市,积极发展小城市和小城镇,形成城市群与大、中、小城市与小城镇协调发展的国家城市发展新格局。到2020 年将形成由20 个城市群、10 个超大城市、20 个特大城市、150 个大城市、240 个中等城市、350 个小城市和19000 个小城镇组成的6 级国家城市规模结构新体系;重新构建建制市的设市标准,尝试建立民族自治市;鼓励发展小城市和小城镇,把其作为农业人口就近就地市民化的首选地,不断提升城镇化发展质量。

关键词: 城市发展方针, 演变过程, 局限性, 调整方案, 城市规模新格局, 中国

Abstract: Urban development policies provide general guidelines for sustainable urban development and establish the direction and overall framework of urban development. Urban development rules dictate that urban development policies change alongside different urban development phases, hence, cities in various stages need compatible policies to guide their development. Here, we review the evolution of Chinese urban development policy and its impact over the past 60 years. Limitations of current Chinese urban development policy were identified, including incompatibility between existing policies and the reality of urban development; a lack of basic elaboration of urban agglomeration in key urbanization regions; unreasonable standards for classifying large, medium and small cities; and the inharmonious situation between urban system hierarchies and administrative divisions. Following our review and identification of current issues, several adjustments to existing urban deployment policy are proposed. For example, a new standard should be applied to classify cities into six different scales of megacity behemoth (urban population ≥ 10 million), mega city (urban population 5-10 million), large city (urban population of 1-5 million), medium-sized city (urban population of 0.5-1 million), small city (urban population of 0.1-0.5 million), and small town (urban population < 0.1 million). Under a new context for China's development and urbanization, overall policy should guide the development of urban agglomerations, control the sprawl of megacity behemoths and mega cities, promote the development of large cities, encourage the development of medium-sized cities, and foster the development of small-sized cities and small towns. Under this new system, a six-layer national urban hierarchy with 20 urban agglomerations, 10 megacity behemoths, 20 mega cities, 150 large cities, 240 medium-sized cities, 350 small cities and 19000 small towns could be established by the year 2020. Reconstructing the system of establishing designated cities and the possibility of building different national autonomous cities are also discussed. Fostering the development of small cities and small towns that would become the first choice for the urbanization of the agricultural population would improve the overall quality of urbanization and townships across China.

Key words: urban development policy, evolution process, limitations, adjustment scheme, new pattern of urban development, megacity, China