地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (4): 698-709.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201404010

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠三角外向型制造业非正规部门的形成发展机制——以广州市狮岭镇皮具产业为例

薛德升1, 林韬2, 黄耿志1   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州 510275;
    2. 香港浸会大学地理系, 香港 999077
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-22 修回日期:2014-01-23 出版日期:2014-04-10 发布日期:2014-04-10
  • 通讯作者: 黄耿志(1986-),男,广东人,博士,主要研究兴趣为城市化与非正规部门、全球化与世界城市。E-mail:hhhgz@126.com E-mail:hhhgz@126.com
  • 作者简介:薛德升(1969-),男,山西人,博士,教授,研究方向为城市地理、经济地理与城市规划。E-mail:eesxds@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41130747,41320104001)

The development of informal sectors in the external-oriented manufacturing sector in PRD, China:A case study of leather industry in Shiling Town, Guangzhou

XUE Desheng1, LIN Tao2, HUANG Gengzhi1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong 999077, China
  • Received:2013-07-22 Revised:2014-01-23 Online:2014-04-10 Published:2014-04-10

摘要: 作为世界城市化发展中的普遍现象,非正规部门的形成发展一直是研究重点。以广州狮岭皮具产业为例,以非正规工厂和临时工为对象,研究了外向型制造业中非正规部门的形成发展机制。研究认为:正规企业为满足产品生产和降低成本的需求而采取的生产分包模式是非正规部门形成的根本因素;正规企业劳动保障的缺失与工人对自由轻松的工作方式的追求促使工人转入非正规工厂和临时工市场,推动了非正规部门的发展;当地宽松的管制环境为非正规部门的存在提供了可能。全球金融危机在短期内对非正规部门的发展起到了催化作用。研究支持了新马克思主义理论,认为正规部门和非正规部门是相互联系的关系,是产业经济发展中有利的组成要素。非正规部门不是劳动者进入正规部门的“跳板”,而是他们逃避正规经济过度剥削的“避难所”。最后讨论了有关非正规部门和非正规劳动者的政策启示。

关键词: 非正规部门, 非正规工厂, 临时工, 制造业, 珠江三角洲, 广州狮岭镇

Abstract: The informal sector has been a prevailing phenomenon in the dynamics of the economic development all over the world since 1972. There has been much debate on the question about what drive the persistence and development of informal sectors in cities. Dualism argues that the informal sector is separated from the formal sector, and its emergence is due to the unemployment and poverty. That is, the surplus labor forces enter the informal sectors because they cannot find jobs in formal sectors. However, this viewpoint has been questioned by neo-Marxism, according to which the informal sector is structurally linked with the formal sector and its emergence is a product of the flexible capital accumulation regime in the late capitalist era. That the laborers enter the informal or self-employment sector is because they aim to escape from the over-exploited conditions in the formal sector, rather than lack of formal jobs. This paper aims to contribute to this academic debate by exploring the reasons for the existence and development of the informal sectors in Shiling leather industry of Guangzhou as one of the leading cities in PRD in China. Our research findings include: (1) the fundamental reason for the development of informal sectors arises from the sub-contracting strategy employed by the formal manufacturing enterprises that aim to respond unstable global market and reduce cost and risk; (2) both the lack of labor security in formal enterprises and the desire of the workers to have an autonomy and dignified life drive the workers to enter the informal factories and become the casual laborers; (3) loose regulatory environment enables the existence of informal sectors possible; (4) global financial crisis beginning in 2008 also contributes to the prosperity of informal sectors. We argue that the development of informal sectors in the Shiling leather industry should be recognized as the consequence of the interaction of enterprises, workers and the local government. Our findings support the neo-Marxist understanding of the dynamics of the informal economy. It is found that the functional linkage exists between the informal sectors and formal sectors. The informal sector plays a significant role in the development of the industry cluster and performs as an integral part of the global production system. Informality is not a survival strategy to respond unemployment and poverty as what dualism argues, but is a choice for the laborer to respond to the poor labor working in the formal sectors. Nevertheless, this alternative choice has put them into a newly poor livelihoods situation.

Key words: informal sector, informal factory, casual laborers, manufacturing industry, Pearl River Delta, Shiling Town, Guangzhou