地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (6): 1129-1139.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201406013

• 经济地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

教育投入对中国经济增长作用的区域差异分析——基于多指标面板数据聚类结果

孙玉环1, 季晓旭2   

  1. 1. 东北财经大学统计学院, 大连 116025;
    2. 东北财经大学社会与行为跨学科研究中心, 大连 116025
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-19 修回日期:2014-03-20 出版日期:2014-06-10 发布日期:2014-06-10
  • 作者简介:孙玉环(1970-),女,黑龙江牡丹江人,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为宏观经济统计分析、社会调查方法。E-mail:yhsun602@126.com

Regional differences in the impact of educational investments on China's economic growth:Based on a cluster analysis of multivariate panel data

SUN Yuhuan1, JI Xiaoxu2   

  1. 1. School of Statistics, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian 116025, Liaoning, China;
    2. Interdisciplinary Center for Social & Behavioral Studies, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian 116025, Liaoning, China
  • Received:2013-12-19 Revised:2014-03-20 Online:2014-06-10 Published:2014-06-10

摘要: 进入21 世纪,人力资本在经济增长中的作用越来越突出,作为人力资本形成的重要途径,教育在中国已经被提高到优先发展的战略地位。以2001-2010 年中国31 个省份的面板数据为基础,基于人均受教育年限、人均教育经费、教育经费占地区GDP比例三项指标的多指标面板数据聚类结果,进行“微观”面板数据建模,具体比较和分析中国教育发展水平、GDP对教育投入弹性的区域差异。研究发现:教育投入对不同发展水平、不同类型经济区域的影响作用不同。总体来看,GDP对教育投入富有弹性,尤其是对于经济基础好、居民文化素质较低的省份,GDP对教育投入的弹性通常较大。但中西部9 个省份则出现教育与经济消极互动的局面,表现为GDP对教育投入缺乏弹性。

关键词: 教育投入, 经济增长, 面板数据, 多指标面板数据聚类, 中国

Abstract: Human capital has become increasingly important for economic growth in the 21st century. As an important means of developing human capital, education in China has become a strategic priority. The country's investment in education has been increasing these years. However, the relative lack of regional educational investment has led to regional disparity in compulsory education. This has resulted in an unequal distribution of human capital across China, thus exacerbating the differences in regional economic development. This study analyzes and compares the regional differences in education investment and the elasticity of GDP by using panel data from 2001 to 2010 of 31 Chinese provinces and a micro-panel data model of multidimensional clusters derived from the indexes of per capita education years, per capita education funds, and the proportion of education funds to GDP. The study finds that the effect of education at different levels of development differs across development levels and types of economies. In nine of the central and western Chinese provinces that have a weak economic foundation and low level of education development—Yunnan, Gansu, Guizhou, Ningxia, Hainan, Xinjiang, Shanxi, Qinghai, and Xizang—there is a negative relationship between education funds and economic growth, with GDP lacking elasticity. On the other hand, in the other 22 provinces, which have a better economic foundation, GDP is elastic and interacts negatively with education. Among these provinces, Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin have the highest elasticity coefficient. The paper goes on to suggest that the government should advocate equality in education, promote compulsory education in rural areas, and formulate different education priority development strategies aimed at different regional development levels of both economy and education. Furthermore, the government should not only ensure that the state is the main investor in education funds but also encourage the education funds raised by enterprises and individuals by ensuring better policy decisions.

Key words: education investment, economic growth, panel data, multidimensional clusters, China