地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (6): 1151-1166.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201406015

• 旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家级风景名胜区旅游效率空间格局动态演化及其驱动机制

曹芳东1, 黄震方1, 余凤龙1,2, 吴丽敏1   

  1. 1. 南京师范大学地理科学学院, 南京 210023;
    2. 南通大学地理科学学院, 南通 226007
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-25 修回日期:2014-03-16 出版日期:2014-06-10 发布日期:2014-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 黄震方(1963-),男,江苏扬中人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事旅游地理与旅游规划研究。E-mail:zhfh@263.net E-mail:zhfh@263.net
  • 作者简介:曹芳东(1984-),男,江苏徐州人,博士,讲师,主要从事旅游地理与旅游规划研究。E-mail:qichen84@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271149);南京师范大学哲学社科青年人才培育基金(13QNPY12)

The spatial evolution of travel efficiency of China's National Scenic Areas and its driving mechanism

CAO Fangdong1, HUANG Zhenfang1, YU Fenglong1,2, WU Limin1   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China;
    2. School of Geographical Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226007, China
  • Received:2013-10-25 Revised:2014-03-16 Online:2014-06-10 Published:2014-06-10

摘要: 借助数据包络分析方法(DEA)综合测算了国家级风景名胜区旅游效率,结合标准差椭圆和重心坐标探讨了风景名胜区旅游效率重心演化的轨迹与路径,考察了影响演化轨迹的重要因素及其作用机理。结果表明:① 国家级风景名胜区旅游效率总体不高,变化幅度较小,综合效率、纯技术效率及规模效率均呈现明显的波动性特征,说明改革开放初期的风景区旅游发展主要得益于规模投资,有效的货币资本投入是提升旅游发展的主要措施,平均效率值总体表现为下降态势,风景区多数处于无效率状态,DEA最优状态缺乏,导致了风景区生产单元存在一定的资源冗余和开发低效状态。② 从重心的整体分布上看,主要位于107°11'~118°37'E 和29°02'~38°55'N 之间,东西跨度约11°,南北跨度约9°;从旅游效率重心演变的轨迹上来看,综合效率的变化轨迹最大,但总体上都是经历了先西偏南再东偏北再西偏南的历程,其中规模效率和全要素生产率的重心东偏北的趋势相对较小,而综合效率和纯技术效率在重心东偏北的趋势上变化较大。③ 针对风景区旅游效率空间格局动态演化的驱动机制的剖析表明,经济发展水平、资源禀赋、产业结构、交通发展、信息技术及制度供给是影响效率重心偏移的重要因素,促使了效率动态格局的空间演化,优化产业结构,引进先进技术,完善市场引导机制,政府科学调控及资源禀赋改善是促进风景区旅游效率提升的有效路径。

关键词: DEA, 国家级风景名胜区, 旅游效率, 空间演化, 驱动机制

Abstract: By using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method, this paper first comprehensively measures and calculates the tourism efficiency of China's National Scenic Areas. Then, methods of Standard Deviation Ellipse and Barycentric Coordinates are adopted for exploring how the gravity centers of travel efficiency of China's National Scenic Areas evolves and for analyzing the important factors which affect the evolution path and its mechanism. Results are shown as follows: (1) Generally, the tourism efficiency of China's National Scenic Areas is not high, with a comparatively low variation. The comprehensive efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency are characterized by obvious fluctuation, which illustrates, in the early stage of the reform and opening up, that the tourism development of scenic areas benefited from scale-investment and effective monetary capital investment is the main measure to promote tourism development. In addition, the average efficiency value shows an overall decline, which indicateds most scenic areas are in a state of inefficiency, lack of DEA optimum state so that the production unit of scenic areas shows certain resources redundancy and inefficient development. (2) Viewed from the distribution of the gravity centers on the whole, they are mainly located between 107°11'E-118°37'E and 29°02'N-38°55'N, an east-west span of about 11° and south-north span of about 9°; seen from the evolution of travel efficiency gravity centers, the comprehensive efficiency varies the most, but on the whole the paths all change from west by south first to east by north, then back to west by south. Meanwhile, the trend of east by north of the gravity centers of the scale efficiency and total factor productivity are relatively small, while the trends of the comprehensive efficiency and pure technical efficiency change greatly.(3) By analyzing the evolution driving mechanism of spatial layout of scenic areas travel efficiency, we can find out that the level of economic development, resources endowment, industrial structure, transportation development, information technology and system supply are the important factors which affect the gravity centers shift of the travel efficiency, and these factors promote the dynamic evolution of spatial pattern of the travel efficiency. Through optimizing the industrial structure, introducing advanced technology, making perfection of the market mechanism, scientific government regulation and improvement of resources endowment, we can effectively raise the travel efficiency of scenic areas.

Key words: DEA, National Scenic Area, travel efficiency, spatial evolution, driving mechanism