地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (7): 1315-1334.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201407012

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

西安入境游客目的地空间意象认知序列研究

张春晖, 白凯, 马耀峰   

  1. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院, 西安 710119
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-02 修回日期:2014-03-03 出版日期:2014-07-10 发布日期:2014-07-10
  • 通讯作者: 白凯(1974-),男,回族,陕西西安人,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为旅游市场开发和游客行为。E-mail:bkshaanxi@163.com E-mail:bkshaanxi@163.com
  • 作者简介:张春晖(1985-),男,河北石家庄人,博士研究生,研究方向为旅游目的地营销。E-mail:chunhui_1985@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40901077,41271157,41271158);国家旅游局旅游业青年专家培养计划(TYETP201343);陕西师范大学研究生培养创新基金(2012CXB006)

The research on inbound tourists’ cognition sequence for spatial image of urban destinations in Xi’an

ZHANG Chunhui, BAI Kai, MA Yaofeng   

  1. Tourism and Environment College of Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
  • Received:2013-09-02 Revised:2014-03-03 Online:2014-07-10 Published:2014-07-10

摘要: 选取西安入境游客为研究对象,依托324 份调查问卷中所提取和统计的认知地图相关数据,分析了西安城市目的地空间意象特征,并重点探讨了认知地图类型及构成要素在游客停留天数上的动态变化过程,据此提出了入境游客目的地城市空间意象认知过程。结果显示:① 西安入境游客的认知地图共分为四大类型,其中以空间型为主,单体型、序列型和混合型次之。② 从空间意象认知要素上看,标志物出现频率最高,其次为区域、边界、节点和道路。以钟楼为中心结合城墙以及东西南北4 条大街,构成了入境游客西安城市目的地空间意象的基本框架。③ 西安入境游客目的地空间认知过程,在认知地图主导类型上,呈现“空间型+单体型→空间型→序列型(混合型)→单体型”的演变序列,在空间认知主导要素上,则为“标志物→标志物+道路→标志物”的发展序列。这一空间认知过程反映了游客对目的地空间意象的关注重点由个性到结构,再到意义的转换。

关键词: 旅游目的地意象, 空间认知过程, 认知地图, 西安

Abstract: It is critical to use spatial cognitive process to discuss the human-environment inter-action and geospatial cognition. It is hard to draw consistent conclusions when we discuss the spatial cognitive process in the academic circle, and the key point of contention is the dominant element of spatial cognition and the type evolution rule of cognitive map. About the dominant element of spatial cognition, there are three theoretical perspectives, namely routes-based viewpoint, landmarks-based viewpoint and integration development viewpoint. About the type evolution rule of cognitive map, numerous empirical studies have questioned the hypothesis of cognitive map changing from sequential type to spatial type which was put forward by Appleyard. Compared with the general permanent residents, tourists' destination spatial cognitive process has a unique rule. So more attention to tourists in related studies would provide new empirical evidence for the study of spatial cognitive process, and promote the development of spatial cognitive process theory with more universal sense. Therefore, taking inbound tourists in Xi'an as the research objects, the study extracts and counts data about cognitive map from 324 questionnaires, and analyzes spatial image characteristics of Xi'an urban destination. And the study especially discusses the dynamic change process of types and constituent elements of cognitive map with tourists' duration of stay, and accordingly proposes inbound tourists' cognitive process of spatial image of urban destination. The results mainly include three aspects: (1) There are 4 types of cognitive maps of Xi'an inbound tourists, in which spatial type is major, and individual type, sequential type and hybrid type are secondary. This is different from residents' urban cognitive maps in which sequential type is dominant, indicating that there is a significant difference between tourists and residents in cognitive style of urban spatial image. Inbound tourists' spatial environment knowledge of destination is derived from direct experience with tourist attractions scattered in the city, and from indirect sources such as travel maps. This is why spatial type is dominant in inbound tourists' cognitive maps. With the second highest frequency, the individual type of cognitive map not only reflects the integrity of tourists' spatial memory, but also highlights tourists' sense of place towards destination environment, and represents a special development stage of spatial cognition. (2) From cognition elements of spatial image, the frequency of landmarks is the highest, while the frequency of district, boundary, node and road is lower. Spatial orientation and wayfinding, as well as the need of exploring social and cultural significance of symbols and establishing an emotional connection with the destination, these four factors jointly prompt landmark to become a dominant element in inbound tourists' cognitive maps. Converging at Bell Tower, east, west, south and north streets are easily perceived together by inbound tourists, and they appear mostly together in tourists' cognitive maps. Consequently, route element is second only to landmark element in average number per cognitive map. The Bell Tower, which is the center, combined with the city wall and east, west, south, north streets constitutes a basic framework of Xi'an inbound tourists' spatial image of urban destination. (3) Inbound tourists' spatial cognitive process of Xi'an urban destination includes two sequences: in the matter of dominant type of cognitive maps, the evolution sequence is "spatial type + individual type→spatial type→sequential type (hybrid type) →individual type"; and in the matter of dominant element of spatial cognition, the evolution sequence is "landmarks→ landmarks+routes→landmarks". This spatial cognitive process indicates that inbound tourists' attention focus of spatial image of urban destination turns from the identity to the structure, then to the meaning.

Key words: tourism destination image, spatial cognitive process, cognitive map, Xi’an