地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (7): 1348-1360.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201407014

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于多灾种自然灾害风险的长白山地区生态安全综合评价

倪晓娇1, 南颖1, 朱卫红1, 崔允秀2, 刘国明3, 刘辰1, 姚阔1   

  1. 1. 延边大学理学院地理系, 吉林延吉 133002;
    2. 韩国首尔市立大学空间情报工学科, 韩国首尔 130743;
    3. 吉林省长白山天池火山监测站, 吉林安图 133613
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-12 修回日期:2014-04-21 出版日期:2014-07-10 发布日期:2014-07-10
  • 通讯作者: 南颖(1963-),朝鲜族,吉林安图人,教授,主要环境遥感、GIS、RS应用以及城市地理等方面研究。E-mail:nanying@ybu.edu.cn E-mail:nanying@ybu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:倪晓娇(1985-),女,吉林柳河县人,硕士,研究方向为自然灾害与生态安全。E-mail:xiaojiaonee@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071333,41110006);韩国首尔市立大学基金项目(201304221114)

Study on comprehensive assessment of ecological security in Changbai Mountain Region based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk

NI Xiaojiao1, NAN Ying1, ZHU Weihong1, Choi Yunsoo2, LIU Guoming3, LIU Chen1, YAO Kuo1   

  1. 1. The department of Geography, Yanbian University, Yanji 133002, Yanji, China;
    2. Department of Geoinformatics, City University of Seoul, Seoul, 130-743, Korea;
    3. Changbai Mountain Volcano Monitoring Stations, Antu 133613, Jilin, China
  • Received:2013-11-12 Revised:2014-04-21 Online:2014-07-10 Published:2014-07-10

摘要: 以长白山地区为研究区,以DEM数据、气象站实测数据、遥感影像数据、专题地图数据和统计数据作为数据源,结合长白山地区气象灾害、火山灾害和地质灾害风险水平的分布数据,基于PSR模型建立了基于多灾种自然灾害风险的生态安全评价指标体系。采用极差法、层次分析法、综合指数法进行了基于多灾种自然灾害风险水平的长白山地区生态安全综合评价。结果表明:长白山地区基于多灾种自然灾害风险的生态安全等级呈现出明显的空间差异性,整体上呈现出由中部向东西两端和南北两端逐渐递减的趋势。各等级面积大小排序为:临界安全等级>较安全等级>安全等级>较不安全等级>不安全等级。各县市基于多灾种自然灾害风险的生态安全水平大小排序为:长白县>安图县>抚松县>和龙市>临江市,同时各县市的等级构成也有所差异。整体上看,长白山地区基于多灾种自然灾害风险的生态安全水平以临界安全等级为主,生态环境质量受到了一定程度的破坏,驱动力因素主要是自然灾害和人为因素。

关键词: 生态学, 自然灾害学, 多灾种叠加风险, 生态安全评价, 长白山地区

Abstract: The study, taking the Changbai Mountain Region as the study area, used DEM data, observational data of metrological station, remote sensing image data, thematic map data and statistical data as the main data sources, combined with the metrological disasters, volcanic disasters and geological disasters risk level distribution data in Changbai Mountain Region and based on PSR model. The study established the ecological security assessment index system based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk from three aspects of ecological system pressure, ecological system state and human environmental response. According to the index system, Range Method was used for index standardization, AHP was used to determine the weights of the indexes, and Comprehensive Index Method was used to calculate the ecological security index based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk. According to the ecological security criteria based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk and combined with the existing literature, the ecological security index based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk was divided into five grades of Insecurity Grade, Less Insecurity Grade, Criticality Security Grade, Less Security Grade and Security Grade, and then the ecological security level based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk in Changbai Mountain Region was then assessed based on pixel level and administrative divisions. The results showed that: the ecological security level based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk in Changbai Mountain Region reflected significant spatial differences, and represented a gradual descending trend from the central to the eastern and western ends, as well as the southern and northern sides. The area of each grade ranked as follows: Criticality Security Grade > Less Security Grade > Security Grade > Less Insecurity Grade > Insecurity Grade, and the percentages were respectively 40. 31%, 35. 77%, 10. 23%, 7. 17% and 6. 52%. In addition, the mean ecological security index and the ecological security grades were counted and analyzed based on administrative divisions. The ecological security level based on multi-hazard natural disasters risk in counties and cities ranked as follows: Changbai County > Antu County > Fusong County > Helong City > Linjiang City, and the structure of the grades varied from city to city. The Criticality Security Grade was mainly found in this region, the ecological environmental quality was at general level, which was between security grades and insecurity grades, and the system service function was damaged to some extent and was degraded. The ecological structure changed, the anti-interference ability was low, and the self-recover ability was low. The ecological problems were evident and the ecological disasters occurred occasionally. The main driving forces of the ecological environmental problems were human factors.

Key words: ecology science, natural disaster science, multi-hazard overlay risk, ecological security assessment, Changbai Mountain Region