地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (8): 1579-1592.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201408016

• • 上一篇    

清代陕蒙交界地区的土地开垦过程

吴承忠1(), 邓辉2, 舒时光2   

  1. 1. 对外经济贸易大学公共管理学院,北京 100029
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-27 修回日期:2014-04-15 出版日期:2014-08-20 发布日期:2014-08-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:吴承忠(1971- ),男,湖北省武汉人,博士,副教授,主要从事历史地理学、经济地理学研究。E-mail:wucz00@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41230634);对外经济贸易大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项项目(CXTD4-09);对外经济贸易大学学科建设专项项目(XK2014202)

The study on the land development process in the border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

Chengzhong WU1(), Hui DENG2, Shiguang SHU2   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2013-10-27 Revised:2014-04-15 Online:2014-08-20 Published:2014-08-10

摘要:

研究清代陕蒙交界地区的土地利用问题,可以反映出该地区300多年以来人与环境之间的互动关系,具有重要意义。运用历史地理学的历史文献研究等方法,分析禁垦时期、限垦时期到放垦时期陕蒙交界区土地开垦的发展过程。结果表明:从动态的角度来看,清代陕蒙交界地区“南田北草”格局的分界线存在一个由“二边”—“大边”—康熙线—乾隆线—光绪线逐步北移的过程,但仍是“相对稳定”、“相对清晰”的。清代陕蒙交界地区“南田北草”格局分布及农业生产的发展,始终存在一个“理性垦殖”选择的过程,这是由特有的地理环境决定并受到当时政治经济形势的影响。

关键词: 清代, 陕蒙交界地区, 土地开垦, 伙盘地, 黑界地, 开发过程

Abstract:

The border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia is a typical transitional zone between the Mu Us Sandy Land and loess hilly region of northern Shaanxi province, which is the middle part of the transitionally ecological zone in North China and is also an agro-pastoral zone. This area has the sites of many Great Wall sections and castles that were built during different periods and the cultural landscape and natural landscape in this area are highly consistent. So it is a typical area for the study of the influence of human activity on the earth ecological system in different historical periods. In the early Qing Dynasty, this area set up "Jinliudi" to prevent the communication between the Han and Mongolian ethnic groups; Until the late period of the reign of Kangxi, the Hans were permitted to reclaime "Huopandi" in the Mongolia area, and then the government set up "Heijiedi" to restrict the Hans' activity of reclaiming north. However, the trend of private reclamation could not be stopped and in the late Qing Dynasty the policy of migrant reclamation proposed by Yi-Gu formed the pattern of the land use in the border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. So it is significant to make a research on the land use in this area, which reflected the interactive relation between the human being and the environment in the Qing Dynasty for more than 300 years. Overall, the land use at the junction area of Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia during the Qing Dynasty presented a "southern farmland and northern grassland" pattern. From the actual dividing line, this pattern is extremely stable. From the system boundary, the pattern is "relatively stable". Overall, the pattern experienced a process from establishment to gradual fuzzy and northward movement. The dividing line experienced a process where it moved northward gradually from "two sides" - "big edge" - Kangxi line - Qianlong line - Guangxu line, but it was still "relatively stable, "and" relatively clear". In the pattern and the development of agricultural production during the Qing Dynasty, there was always a "rational cultivation" selection, which was determined by the unique geographical environment and subject to the prevailing political and economic situation impacts. During a long period, government-led reclamation became the main part of reclamation in the Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia region. Political reasons, especially war, is an impor tant factor affecting reclamation in the Inner Mongolia region. In this process, the main body of reclamation of the government and the farmers, underwent a "rational choice" process. This process focused more on the political and economic factors rather than the ecological environment factor.

Key words: Qing Dynasty, the border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia, land development, Huopandi, Heijiedi, development process