Discrete degree on village settlement's spatial distribution and its correlation with net income of rural residents in poverty county
LI Heying1, 2, 3, WANG Yanhui1, 2, 3
1. Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource Environment and Geographic Information System, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China; 2. Key Laboratory of 3-Dimensional Information Acquisition and Application, Ministry of Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China; 3. State Key Laboratory Incubation Base of Urban Environmental Processes and Digital Simulation, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
Abstract：A reasonable rural settlement's layout for administrative villages contributes not only to education poverty and health povertyalleviation, but also to help the government make scientific decisions for rural infrastructure construction. However, at present there exist some problems on village settlement distribution, especially in the poverty-stricken counties, such as the large amount but the small scale, unordered and scattered settlement layout, the imperfect infrastructure and so on. In the previous research, almost all the calculation principles on the rural resident's space distribution were based on the Euclidean distance, however, the Euclidean distance can not reflect the influence of topography on the residential spatial distribution pattern, while the road is the main way to connect the settlements, and the road length among the settlements is the true reflection of distance. At present, there are some blanks on taking the road network connectivity distance as a measurement to evaluate the village settlement's spatial dispersion in poverty-stricken areas, and as well as on the correlation with economic development. So taking Neixiang county as a study area, which is one of state-level poverty-stricken counties from the Qinling-Da mountains in China, this paper focuses on the specific distribution of rural residential areas and its correlation with the net income of rural residents. Based on the road network connectivity and dispersion composite index (DCI), this paper builds a discrete degree evaluation model, consisting of three inner indicators and three outer ones, and then uses GIS network analysis, overlay analysis and statistical analysis to evaluate the discrete degree of residential space distribution on 288 administrative villages from Neixiang county. Furthermore, respectively at the county scale, different geomorphic scales and different economic circles scales, the correlation analysis between the DCI and the net income of rural residents which reflects the economic development level of village, is done to reveal the relevant relationship between economic development and spatial distribution for village settlements. Results indicate that: as the dispersion degree of village residents; spatial distribution is concerned, there exists an aggregated-discrete distribution from town center to peripheral area, and specially, there is the smallest DCI value around Chengguan town, and the highest DCI values near the north, northwest and southwest mountains of the county; DCI reduces not only with the increase of net income of rural residents, but also with the influence of the DCI values of the surrounding villages; in the mountain conditions, the negative correlation between DCI and net income of rural residents is obviously stronger than that in the hilly and plain areas; the radiation effect of economic circle has great influences on both DCI and the net income of rural residents. The above conclusion has an important significance for the government's regulation planning of rural residents in poor areas, specially, when the governments plan rural residents for poverty alleviation in poor areas they have to deal with the problems systematically, so that they can improve the economic development levels of rural residents by adding economic centers, while reducing the discrete degrees of the resident settlements.
李贺颖, 王艳慧. 贫困县村级居民点空间分布离散度与农村居民纯收入关联格局分析[J]. 地理研究, 2014, 33(9): 1617-1628.
LI Heying, WANG Yanhui. Discrete degree on village settlement's spatial distribution and its correlation with net income of rural residents in poverty county. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2014, 33(9): 1617-1628.
 国家统计局住户调查办公室.中国农村2011贫困监测报告. 北京:中国统计出版社,2012.11-14. The Office for National Statistics Household Surveys. Chinese rural poverty monitoring report 2011. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2012.11-14.  Ying L G. Understanding China's recent growth experience: A spatial econometric perspective. The Annals of Regional Science, 2003, 37(4):613 - 628.  中共中央,国务院.中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年).中华人民共和国国务院公报,2011(35). The CPC Central Committee, the State Council. Outline China rural poverty alleviation and development (2011-2020) .Gazette of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China,2011(35).  郭熙宝.论贫困概念的内涵.山东社会科学,2005,12:49-54. Guo Xibao. On connotation of the concept of poverty. Shandong Social Science, 2005,12:49-54.  王小林, Alkire S.中国多维贫困测量:估计和政策含义.中国农村经济,2009,12:4-23. Wang Xiaolin, Alkire S. Chinese multidimensional poverty measurement: estimation and policy implications. Chinese Rural Economy, 2009,12:4-23.  马佳.农村居民点用地集约利用潜力评价理论模型初探.国土资源科技管理,2007,24(6):118-121. MaJia. A theoretical model of potential evaluation of intensive rural residential land use. Scientific and Technological Management of Land, 2007, 24(6):118-121.  杨庆媛,田永中,王朝科,等.西南丘陵山地区农村居民点土地整理模式——以重庆渝北区为例.地理研究,2004,23(4):469-478. Yang Qingyuan, Tian Yongzhong, Wang Chaoke, et al. On the land use characteristics and the land consolidation models of rural residential area of the hilly and mountainous regions in southwest china: A case study of chongqing. Geographical Research, 2004, 23(4):469-478.  朱亮,吴炳方,张磊.三峡典型区农村居民点格局及人居环境适宜性评价研究.长江流域资源与环境,2011,20(3):325-331. ZhuLiang, Wu Bingfang, ZhangLei. Research on the landscape of rural residential areas and human settlement environment suitability evaluation in three gorges typical regions. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 2011, 20(3):325-331.  李新运.城市空间数据挖掘方法与应用研究.山东:山东科技大学,2004. Li Xinyun. Research on methods and application for urban spatial data mining. Shandong: Shandong University of Science and Technology, 2004.  胡燕,胡玉福,邓良基,等.基于GIS的石角镇农村居民点空间分布特征分析.中国农学通报,2010,26(16):315-320. Hu Yan, Hu Yufu, Deng Liangji, et al. The analysis of spacial distribution characteristics of rural settlement in Shijiao town based on GIS. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2010, 26(16):315-320.  孙华生,黄敬峰,金艳,等.基于GIS技术的县域居民点空间分布特征分析及其优化布局.浙江大学学报（农业与生命科学版）, 2007,33(3):348-354. Sun Huasheng, Huang Jingfeng, Jin Yan, et al. Spatial distribution characteristics analysis and optimization of county-level settlements based on GIS. Journal of Zhejiang University (Agric. & Life Sci.), 2007, 33 (3):348-354.  杨春.山地型农村居民点空间分布特征及其布局优化研究：以陕西省千阳县为例.西北:西北大学,2012. Yang Chun. The research on the distribution characteristics and the layout optimization of the land for mountainous rural settlements A case study of Qianyang county in Shanxi province. Shanxi: Norwest University, 2012.  倪斌.基于GIS技术的武夷山市农村居民点空间分布特征.现代测绘,2012,35(1):17-20. Ni Bin. Spatial distribution characteristics analysis of Wu Yishan city settlements based on GIS . Modern Surveying and Mapping, 2012,35(1):17-20.  于淼,边振兴,李建东. RS 与GIS 支持下的桓仁县农村居民点景观格局与空间分布特征分析.西南师范大学学报(自然科学版),2009,34(4):106-114. Yu Miao, Bian Zhenxing, Li Dongjian. Analysis of landscape pattern and spatial distribution feature in Huairen county by remote sensing and geographic information system. Journal of Southwest China Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2009, 34(4):106-114.  从忆波,刘伟圣.秦安县农村居民点空间分布景观格局分析.地理空间信息,2011,9(5):90-93. Cong Yibo, Liu Weisheng. Analysis of landscape pattern of spatial distribution of rural residents in Qinan county. Geospatial Information, 2011, 9(5):90-93.  闫庆武,卞正富.基于GIS-SDA的居民点空间分布研究.地理与地理信息科学,2008,24(3):57-61. Yan Qingwu, Bian Zhengfu. Study on distribution patterns of settlements based on GIS-SDA. Geography and Geo - Information Science, 2008, 24(3):57-61.  Thompson H R. Distribution of distance to the neighbor in a population of randomly distributed individuals. Ecology, 1956:391 - 394.  冯维波,谢江沛,王伟伟,等.基于空间离散度的川渝城市群与长三角城市群的比较分析.现代城市,2012,7(1):17-19. Feng Weibo, Xie Jiangpei, Wang Weiwei, et al. A comparative analysis between Sichuan-Chongqing urban agglomeration and the Yangtze river delta urban agglomeration on the basis of spatial dispersion. Modern City, 2012,7(1):17-19.  Goodchild M F, Anselin L, Appelbaum R P, et al. Toward spatially integrated social science. International Regional Science Review, 2000, 23(2):139 - 159.  朱子明,祁新华.基于Moran'I 的闽南三角洲空间发展研究.经济地理,2009,29(12):1977- 1980. Zhu Ziming, Qi Xinhua. Research on spatial development of Minnan delta basing on Moran'I. Economic Geography, 2009,29(12):1977- 1980.  张晓旭,冯宗宪.中国人均GDP 的空间相关与地区收敛:1978-2003.经济学(季刊),2008,7(2):399-414. Zhang Xiaoxu, Feng Zongxian. Spatial correlation and regional convergence in per-capita GDP in China: 1978-2003. China Economic Quarterly, 2008, 7(2):399-414.  孟斌,王劲峰,张文忠,等.基于空间分析方法的中国区域差异研究.地理科学.2005,25(4):393-400. Meng Bin, Wang Jinfeng, Zhang Wenzhong, et al. Evaluation of regional disparity in China based on spatial analysis. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 2005, 25(4):393-400.  胡青峰,张子平,何荣,等.基于Geoda095i区域经济增长率的空间统计分析研究.测绘与空间地理信息,2007,30(2):53-55. Hu Qingfeng, Zhang Ziping, He Rong, et al. Study on spatial statistical analysis of regional economic growth rate based on Geoda 095i. Geomatics & Spatial Information Technology, 2007, 30(2):53-55.  Anselin L. Exploring Spatial Data with GeoDaTM: a Workbook. Urbana, 2005.  柴宗新.按相对高度划分地貌基本形态的建议.北京:测绘出版社,1986. Chai Zongxin. Suggestions on the method of dividing geomorphic according to relative height. Beijing: Surveying and Mapping Press,1986.