地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (11): 2043-2055.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201411005

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不同类型农户家庭能源消费差异及其影响因素——以重庆市“两翼”地区为例

何威风(), 阎建忠(), 花晓波   

  1. 西南大学资源环境学院,重庆 400716
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-25 修回日期:2014-09-02 出版日期:2014-11-10 发布日期:2015-03-13
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:何威风(1988- ),男,河南商丘人,硕士,主要从事土地利用规划研究。E-mail:hwf0525@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41161140352)

Differences and influencing factors of rural household energy consumption of different household types: A case study in the "two wings" area of Chongqing

Weifeng HE(), Jianzhong YAN(), Xiaobo HUA   

  1. College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China
  • Received:2014-03-25 Revised:2014-09-02 Online:2014-11-10 Published:2015-03-13

摘要:

随着社会经济发展,农户生计出现分化。不同生计类型农户家庭用能差异越来越明显,而已有文献对此研究较少。选取了重庆市经济发展相对落后和生态脆弱性较强的“两翼”地区为案例,基于1015份调查问卷,对比分析了不同类型农户家庭能源消费数量、结构及环境、经济成本的差异。基于山区生态环境的角度及农户家庭用能现状,使用Tobit模型,分析了农户家庭薪柴(最主要的能源)消费比例的影响因素。研究表明:① 四类农户中,以非农为主的III-2(人力资产型农户)的人均薪柴消费量及其占总能的比例均最低。由于生计策略差异及年龄等条件限制,其他三类农户仍大量使用薪柴。② 农户人均薪柴消费成本较高,尤其在环境成本方面,替代能源能有效降低农户人均能源消费的环境成本。III-2通过减少薪柴消费量,降低了人均家庭能源消费总成本,其他三类农户人均家庭能源消费总成本较高。③ 替代能源可获取性及人均牲畜量是影响四类农户薪柴消费比例的共同原因;此外,家庭健康状况对II(基本型农户)薪柴消费比例有促进作用,对III-2起抑制作用;在家人数比例对III-1(自然资产型农户)和III-2薪柴消费比例均有促进作用,其他收入不利于降低II薪柴消费比例。

关键词: 农户类型, 家庭能源, 影响因素, 薪柴, 重庆市

Abstract:

With economic development, households' livelihoods began to be differentiated. The differences of household energy consumption of different household types become more and more obviously. However, the current empirical studies on it are scarce. Using the rural household energy consumption by 1015 survey questionnaires in the "two wings" area of Chongqing where its economy lags behind relatively and is ecologically fragile, this paper comparatively analyses the levels, structure, environmental cost and economic cost of household energy consumption through the questionnaire survey. Finally, based on the perspective of mountainous ecological environment and the current situation of rural household energy consumption, this study analyzes the influencing factors of firewood (the main energy of household) consumption ratio by the Tobit model. The results show that: (1) Among the four household types, for III-2 (human assets type household), whose livelihoods are mainly based on non-agricultural sectors, both per-capita firewood consumption and the ratio that firewood accounts for the total energy are the lowest. The other three household types are still relying on firewood, due to the differences of livelihood strategy and the restriction of other conditions, such as age. (2) Household firewood consumption can cause a larger cost, especially in the term of environmental cost. However, the environmental cost can be reduced with alternative energy. III-2 has a low per-capita total cost by reducing per-capita firewood consumption, but that of the other three household types are relatively high. (3) Both availability of alternative energy and per-capita livestock have great effects on household firewood consumption ratio. Besides, household health condition has a positive effect on firewood consumption ratio of II (Basic type household), but a negative effect on III-2; the ratio of people that are at home has a positive effect on the firewood consumption ratio in both III-1 (Natural assets type household) and III-2. Besides, other income has a negative effect on the firewood consumption ratio of II.

Key words: household type, household energy, influencing factors, firewood, Chongqing Municipality