地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (11): 2095-2104.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201411009

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绿地景观对城市热环境的影响——以长春市建成区为例

王蕾1(), 张树文2(), 姚允龙3   

  1. 1. 黑龙江科技大学矿业工程学院,哈尔滨 150022
    2. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所遥感与地理信息研究中心,长春 130102
    3. 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院,哈尔滨 150040
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-06 修回日期:2014-09-06 出版日期:2014-11-10 发布日期:2015-03-13
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王蕾(1983- ),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,博士,副教授,从事GIS与RS在城市生态环境中的应用研究。E-mail:wanglei_happiness@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41101177);黑龙江省高校战略后备人才出国研修资助项目;黑龙江科技学院优秀青年才俊项目(Q20110203);黑龙江省教育厅科学技术研究项目(12511494)

The impacts of green landscape on urban thermal environment: A case study in Changchun city

Lei WANG1(), Shuwen ZHANG2(), Yunlong YAO3   

  1. 1. College of Mining Engineering, Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150022, China
    2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS, Changchun 130102, China
    3. College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
  • Received:2014-04-06 Revised:2014-09-06 Online:2014-11-10 Published:2015-03-13

摘要:

绿地景观作为城市生态网络中的自然要素,在缓解城市热岛、调节城市气候中发挥着极其重要的作用。以绿地景观为研究对象,基于SPOT5影像提取长春市建成区绿地景观数据,基于TM影像估算地表温度,分析城市绿地景观与地表温度的相关关系,将“植被—不透水面—土壤”模型与具有明确物理意义的线性光谱混合模型相结合估算城市地表植被覆盖度,进一步剖析绿地景观的植被覆盖对城市热环境的影响。结果表明:绿地面积与该块绿地的最低温度负相关性较大,当绿地的面积达到50 hm2之后,面积的增大会使其地表温度显著降低;生产绿地和农业用地的地表温度最低,居住绿地地表温度最高,公园绿地温度受植被状况的影响与其他类型相比更剧烈,常绿树和落叶树的降温效果更好;增加公园绿地、常绿树和落叶树的植被覆盖,对于减缓城市热岛效应具有更好的调节作用。

关键词: 绿地景观, 植被盖度, 热环境, 定量遥感, 空间分析, 长春市

Abstract:

As the main natural productivity in urban structure, the green landscape plays an important role in mitigating the urban heat island, and regulating urban climate. In the perspective of interactive human-environment system, a case study was carried on green landscape of a typical garden city in Northeast China. SPOT5 image was selected for extraction of urban green landscape, and TM image was chosen to retrieve land surface temperature (LST). Correlation analysis was investigated between green landscape (size and area of urban green patches) and LST. The "vegetation-impervious surfaces-soil" model and the physically explicit linear spectral mixing model was combined for mapping the fractional coverage of vegetation, and the vegetation cover of green landscape on LST was further analyzed. Results showed that: (1) the area of green lands has stronger negative correlation with the lowest temperature. It was found that the LST decreased with increasing green lands when the coverage area was over 50 ha. Thus, if green land area was too small, it would have little impact on urban thermal environment; (2) the corresponding LST was low in the productive plantation area and cultivated land, and it was the highest in the residential green space. The vegetation coverage and the LST of green patches was quantitatively analyzed for the whole study area, the result revealed that the impact of vegetation growing conditions on LST of green lands in park green space was more severe than that of other green-land types. Thus, the increase of vegetation coverage in parks could be helpful for regulating the LST; (3) the LST of evergreen and deciduous forest lands was the lowest, followed by the cultivated land, while the cooling effect of grasslands was not obvious, so the LST of evergreen and deciduous forest lands was more sensitive than that of grasslands and cultivated lands, that is, the evergreen and deciduous forest lands could be helpful for alleviating the urban heat island effect.

Key words: green landscape, vegetation coverage, thermal environment, quantitative remote sensing, spatial analysis, Changchun city