地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (12): 2407-2417.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201412017

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创建统一的中华国家公园体系——美国历史经验的启示

王连勇1(), 霍伦贺斯特·斯蒂芬2   

  1. 1. 西南大学经济管理学院国家公园实验室,重庆 400715
    2. 西华盛顿大学赫胥黎环境学院,贝灵汉 98225,美国
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-13 修回日期:2014-09-21 出版日期:2014-12-10 发布日期:2014-12-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王连勇(1965- ),四川仪陇人,博士,副教授,主要从事国家公园及保护区可持续旅游研究。E-mail:wangly@swu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    教育部回国留学人员科研启动项目(2003-18);中美富布赖特研究学者项目(2013-7012)

Building a unified Chinese national park system: Historical lessons learned from the United States

Lianyong WANG1(), Steven HOLLENHORST2   

  1. 1. National Parks Lab, College of Economics and Management, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    2. Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham 98225, USA
  • Received:2014-05-13 Revised:2014-09-21 Online:2014-12-10 Published:2014-12-10

摘要:

以近10年研究中美两国国家公园体系建设的成果为基础,结合近期的实地考察,应用历史比较研究方法,分析了中美两国的国家公园体系发展与演进。全面探讨了美国国家公园体系的演变,以及从19世纪70年代积累下来的重要经验,展示了美国政府如何将401个具有多元性格的公园单位组建为一个具有内生凝聚力的国家公园体系的过程。运用比较研究方法,剖析了在从“全球半开放”到“全球开放”的过程中,中国政府如何致力于建构和应用国家公园新概念,并在多个部门之间形成了分散而具有异质特征的公园管理体制。从早期开始,中国的公园体系就有了全然不同的命名框架和管理政策,其结果是在不同机构之间衍生出不同的管理目标和政策重点。建议学术界与政府共同努力,认真研讨如何尽早创立一个趋向统一而具有民族凝聚力的中华国家公园体系。

关键词: 国家公园, 中华国家公园体系, 管理体制, 可持续发展, 生态文明建设

Abstract:

The authors present a comparative historical analysis of the development and evolution of the national park systems in United States and China. The analysis is based on 10 years of research focusing on national park system development in both countries, along with data collected during a recent Fulbright collaborative research project. The analysis begins with a comprehensive historical review of the U.S. national park system development from the 1870s to the present. The authors describe how over time a cohesive national system emerged that unifies 401 diverse park units. By comparison, the authors then describe the process by which over the past four decades of increasing openness to the outside world, the Chinese government constructed and implemented a decentralized and heterogeneous national park system distributed across multiple government agencies. Still early in its development, the system is characterized by disparate policy and nomenclature frameworks reflecting the varying goals and priorities of the agencies. The authors conclude with three points. First, the global national park movement has been shaped by mutual learning between nations, resulting in a unique form of land use that combines environment protection with sustainable development for human benefit. Second, as an early adopter and innovator, the experience and management information accumulated about the U.S. national park system serves as a useful example for the rest of the world. Third, as a late adopter, the national park system in China has evolved in a decentralized fashion across government departments and agents, leading to inefficiencies, lack of cohesion, and limited effectiveness. The authors conclude by calling for government policy-makers and academics to engage in a multi-partner dialogue aimed at normalizing the national park management regime, building support for thoughtful policy development by the top-levels of government, and suspension of national park pilot projects until a more unified and cohesive vision for the Chinese national park system is agreed upon.

Key words: national park, Chinese national park system, management systems, sustainable development, eco-civilization