地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 39-52.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201501004

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中国欠发达地区资源环境承载力特征与影响因素——以宁夏西海固地区和云南怒江州为例

周侃1,2(), 樊杰1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-16 修回日期:2014-10-22 出版日期:2015-01-10 发布日期:2015-03-17
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周侃(1986- ),男,云南丽江人,助理研究员,主要从事区域可持续发展与规划研究。 E-mail:zhoukan2008@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-06-01);国家自然科学基金重点项目(40830741);国家自然科学基金项目(41271146)

Characteristics and influence factors of resources and environment carrying capacity in underdeveloped areas of China

Kan ZHOU1,2(), Jie FAN1,2()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2014-05-16 Revised:2014-10-22 Online:2015-01-10 Published:2015-03-17

摘要:

目前全国性贫困格局已基本消除,但欠发达地区的连片集中分布格局仍未发生显著变化。分析了欠发达地区分布格局与资源环境要素的空间耦合关系,划分了国家级贫困县的资源环境约束类型;以宁夏西海固地区和云南怒江州为案例,解析了欠发达地区区域总体承载力较弱、资源环境负荷超载、要素间变化响应敏感、承载力提升潜力受限以及超载后修复代价巨大的基本特征;阐释了欠发达地区资源环境承载力受到超载人口流动与迁移、区域生态环境综合治理、资源环境要素区际交互、大规模工程建设过程以及自然灾害突发与气候变暖等新兴因素的多重影响,并探讨了优化提升其总体承载力的对策建议。

关键词: 资源环境承载力, 影响因素, 欠发达地区, 宁夏西海固地区, 云南怒江州

Abstract:

Although the nationwide poverty has been basically eliminated at present in China, the contiguous and concentrated distribution pattern of underdeveloped areas has not changed significantly. In the poverty-stricken areas, generally, resources and environmental conditions have more direct and obvious impacts on the local socio-economic structure. In this paper, firstly, we analyze the spatial coupling relationship between the distribution pattern of underdeveloped areas and the basic elements of resources and environment. The classification of constrained types of resource and environmental condition in national-level poverty counties shows that 456 poverty counties are restricted prominently by the resources and environment in China, accounting for 77% of all of the national-level poverty counties (592), and the proportions of resource-constrained types, environment-constrained types and comprehensive-constrained types are 33%, 23% and 21% respectively. Secondly, based on the case studies of Xiji-Haiyuan-Guyuan area of Ningxia Hui autonomous region and Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province, the overall resources and environment carrying capacity in underdeveloped areas is proved to be relatively weak; the resource and environmental burden is chronically overloading; the response to changes among elements is sensitive; and the potential to enhance capacity is greatly limited. Moreover, the recovery cost is tremendous once the local carrying capacity is overloaded. The results show that these factors such as the mobility and migration of overloading population, the comprehensive renovation of regional eco-environment, the construction of large-scale infrastructure projects, the interaction among regional resource and environmental elements, and the emergency of natural disasters and tendency of global warming have significantly affected resources and environment carrying capacity in underdeveloped areas. Consequently, besides the water and land conditions, eco-environment, resources endowment and other traditional factors, the uncertain factors such as technological progress, institutional and policy arrangements should be taken into consideration in the establishment process of evaluation index system of resources and environment carrying capacity.

Key words: resources and environment carrying capacity, influencing factors, underdeveloped areas, Xiji-Haiyuan-Guyuan area of Ningxia Hui autonomous region, Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province