地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (4): 666-676.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201504006

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2000年以来南京城市三维空间扩展特征

乔伟峰1,2,3(), 刘彦随2(), 王亚华1,3, 陆昱颖1   

  1. 1.南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3.江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-18 修回日期:2014-12-20 出版日期:2015-04-10 发布日期:2015-06-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:乔伟峰(1975- ),男,江苏徐州人,博士,研究方向为土地遥感和GIS应用。E-mail: qiaoweifeng@njnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371172,41130748,41271189);中国博士后科学基金项目(2014M561040);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(164320H101)

Analysis on the characteristics of three-dimensional urban space expansion in Nanjing since 2000

Weifeng QIAO1,2,3(), Yansui LIU2(), Yahua WANG1,3, Yuying LU1   

  1. 1.School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2014-09-18 Revised:2014-12-20 Online:2015-04-10 Published:2015-06-11

摘要:

以南京市建成区为例,基于四期城市三维模型,运用城市天际线、城市体积及分维数、城市三维重心、高层建筑的数量与占地面积的关系等方法从多角度分析2000年以来南京城市三维空间增长特征。研究表明:南京城市天际线起伏明显,西—东方向的形态由2000年的“一高两低三峰”演化为2012年的“中部、西部双峰耸立,东部较为平缓”的格局;城市体积处于持续增长的态势,其中2000-2004年是体积增长最快的时期,增长率为51%,体积分维数在不断变大,表明城市扩展在不断从二维向三维形态发展演变;三维重心平面投影的移动方向从东南转向西,反映了三维城市的发展方向主要为城市南部和西部地区;2000年城市立体形态发展为弱金字塔阶段,至2012年,在高楼密集的中心城区已经发展至均衡金字塔阶段甚至在向穹隆顶阶段过渡。

关键词: 城市建成区, 三维空间, 扩展特征, 南京市

Abstract:

Research on urban space expansion from three-dimensional perspective helps to comprehensively grasp the laws of urban spatial expansion, and promote the scientific policy making of city planning and land use management. This dissertation selects urban built-up area of Nanjing as an example, based on four periods of urban three-dimensional models during 2000-2012, gives a multi-angle analysis on the characteristics of Nanjing three-dimensional urban space expansion since the beginning of the 21st century. In the process of analysis, we used methods such as urban skyline, urban volume and fractal dimension, urban three-dimensional gravity center, the relationship between the number and floor area of high-rise buildings. The results show: (1) The fluctuation of urban skyline in Nanjing is obvious, the height standard deviation of urban buildings increases from 8.78 in 2000 to 12.13 in 2012, urban skyline morphology in west-east direction has transformed from the pattern of "one high peak and two low peaks" in 2000 to the pattern of "two peaks in the middle and west, gentle in the east" in 2012. (2) Urban volume is in a process of constant growth, 2000-2004 was the fastest growing period with a rate of 51%. The sustained growth of volume fractal dimension D indicates that the form of urban expansion transforms from two-dimension to three-dimension morphology continuously. Change characteristic of fractal dimension at different stages is similar to that of total volume. (3) The height of urban three-dimensional gravity center increases from 2.4 m in 2000 to 2.51 m in 2012, its planar projection point has moved from the east side of Gulou square in 2000 to the south side of Xinjiekou in 2012, the direction of movement has experienced the changing process from the southeast to the west. All this reflects that the main development direction of three-dimensional city is south and west. (4) The growth rate of average height of high-rise buildings becomes increasingly higher from 2000 to 2012. The analysis on the relationship of "floor area-building height" shows that from 2000 to 2012, the urban morphology of Nanjing has been in the transition from weak pyramid stage to balance pyramid stage even to dome top stage especially in the center district of densely distributed high-rise buildings. The research provides a new perspective for the study of urban space expansion.

Key words: urban built-up area, three-dimensional space, characteristic of expansion, Nanjing