地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (6): 1015-1028.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201506002

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高速铁路与出行成本影响下的全国陆路可达性分析

蒋海兵1(), 张文忠2, 祁毅3, 蒋金亮4   

  1. 1. 盐城师范学院城市与资源环境学院, 盐城 224002
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
    3. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院, 南京 210093
    4. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-23 修回日期:2015-03-20 出版日期:2015-07-12 发布日期:2015-07-19
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:蒋海兵(1978- ),男,江苏建湖人,博士,研究方向为城市和区域发展。E-mail: jianghb@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41230632,41301108);国家社会科学基金项目(14BSH036);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(11YJC790077)

The land accessibility influenced by China's high-speed rail network and travel cost

Haibing JIANG1, Wenzhong ZHANG2, Yi QI3, Jinliang JIANG4()   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Resource Environment, Yancheng Teacher's College, Yancheng 224002, Jiangsu, China 2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    4. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2014-12-23 Revised:2015-03-20 Online:2015-07-12 Published:2015-07-19

摘要:

基于GIS技术与网络分析模型,应用可达性指数与标准交通经济成本参数(GTC),测度2020年规划高铁通车前后全国陆路可达性的空间格局与变化,探究高速铁路与出行成本影响下陆路可达性的特征。结果显示:从时间可达性看,高铁提高全国陆路可达性的整体水平与交通网络的客流运输效率,优化陆路交通网络,使跨区域中心城市之间联系日趋紧密,扩大中心城市的辐射范围,沿线重要城市人口覆盖范围急剧增长。高铁沿线站点、重要城市化地区与部分边远地区城市可达性获益最多,高铁对城市间中远距离关系影响突出,短距离影响主要局限于高铁沿线地区。此外,地区之间交通公平性差距结论并不统一。从经济可达性看,高铁对不同收入群体陆路可达性影响效果不同,对中低收入群体经济可达性影响有限,而对于高收入群体,随着旅行时间价值提高,经济可达性空间格局将不断接近时间可达性空间格局。

关键词: 高速铁路, 可达性, 公平性, 空间格局

Abstract:

In China, with the drastic development of Chinese high-speed rail (HSR), assessing the impacts of HSR projects on transportation accessibility has recently been a hot topic for planners and researchers. Nevertheless, so far there has been limited research on exploring the implications of HSR on transportation accessibility, especially from the economic cost perspective. This paper studied the pattern and characteristics of land transportation accessibility influenced by China's HSR and travel cost. With the support of GIS technology and massive spatial data, the study constructed spatial analysis models based on shortest path algorithm and network analysis to calculate the accessibility index and generalized travel cost (GTC) parameter, so as to compare the pattern of land transportation accessibility before and after the construction of high speed rail for the planning year 2020. Firstly four accessibility indicators namely location indicator, economic potential, daily accessibility indicator and isochrones were used to measure time accessibility spatial distribution. Secondly, cost accessibility was measured by GTC. The accessibility maps address both the possible benefits and their spatial distribution. At last, the coefficient of variation of the accessibility values and its change before and after the construction of HSR was measured to represent the transport equity. Also the paper estimated whether the disparities of land accessibility were increased after the implementation of HSR. The results showed that from travel time perspective, HSR has improved overall level of the national land time accessibility and efficiency of passenger transportation, optimized the land transport network, then it tightened the connection among different metropolitan areas, expanded the radiation scope of the central cities. In addition HSR contributed to enlarging their service market demarcation and broadened markets of main central cities along the lines in short time distances. Furthermore cities along the HSR lines and in remote regions benefit most from the construction. HSR line had significant effect on the medium- and long-distance travel toward passengers, while short-distance travel mainly influenced the area along the railway lines.However, HSR led to more polarized accessibility patterns which indicated that various regions obtain unbalanced accessibility gain from HSR and enlarged the traffic inequity between different regions.As far as the travel cost accessibility was concerned, different demographic groups benefited differently from the HSR. Obviously travel cost accessibility pattern of the high-income groups was similar to the time accessibility pattern. On the contrary, for medium- and low-income groups, the HSR will not dramatically change the spatial pattern of economic accessibility. Therefore from traffic supply perspective, HSR only provided the possibility for the realization of the time-space convergence, which could greatly enhance regional social economic ties and reconstruct regional spatial pattern, which could not be achieved without passengers travel behavior' response to the HSR.

Key words: high-speed rail, accessibility, equity, spatial pattern