地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (8): 1435-1446.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201508003

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从美丽乡村到都市居民消费空间——行动者网络理论与大世凹村的社会空间重构

陈培培1(), 张敏1,2()   

  1. 1. 南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,南京 210093
    2. 南京大学人文地理研究中心,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-27 修回日期:2015-04-24 出版日期:2015-08-25 发布日期:2015-08-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈培培(1989- ),女,河南焦作人,硕士,主要从事城市与区域规划、消费空间研究。E-mail: 18205176076@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371150)

From beautiful village to urban residents' consumption space: Actor-network theory and the social space reconstruction of Dashiao village

Peipei CHEN1(), Min ZHANG1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Architecture and Urban Planning,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093, China
    2. Research Center of Human Geography, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2014-12-27 Revised:2015-04-24 Online:2015-08-25 Published:2015-08-20

摘要:

大都市近郊美丽乡村的建设为城市居民假日消费提供了新的场所,成为一种新型都市居民消费空间。运用行动者网络理论,对南京市江宁区“世凹桃源”大世凹美丽乡村的重构过程与机制进行分析。指出美丽乡村建设的背后是一个以地方政府为关键行动者的异质行动者网络,主要实现了乡村物质生活空间的改变。随着政府目标意图的转变,鼓励政策退出及市场机制进入,行动者网络重新调整,消费者和外来经营者成为关键行动者,相应地呈现从美丽乡村到都市居民消费空间的转变,即进一步实现社会空间的重构。由于行动者网络是一个充满利益争夺和协商的动态连接,社会空间的重构也是一个持续的过程。研究表明,美丽乡村不仅是提供村民生活和游客抒情怀旧的场所,而且是一个存在权力关系且动态变化的行动者网络空间。政府、组织、村民、消费者、资本、景观、文化等异质性行动者自身的定义与再定义,以及相互之间的作用构成美丽乡村形成与转变机制。揭示了在乡村建设与转型发展过程中,政府及政策的作用机制及其有效时域,市场机制的灵活性及其所带来的利益争端与社会不公问题。

关键词: 乡村, 消费空间, 行动者网络理论, 社会空间

Abstract:

Recently emerging beautiful villages in suburbs provide citizens very places for recreation, and can be considered as a new kind of urban residents' consumption space. From the perspective of actor-network theory, this study analyses the social-spatial reconstruction of Dashiao village. Through the tracing of translation, including four stages of problematization, interessement, enrollment and mobilization, the process and mechanism of the reconstruction of Dashiao beautiful village and the later consumption space was explored. It was manifested in the following four aspects: 1) In the process of the transformation from an usual village to a beautiful village, there was a heterogeneous actor-network, in which Jiangning District government played a focal role mainly by improving the physical environment of the village. 2) Heterogeneous actors changed their roles through urban residents' consumption activities. Along with the quit of incentives launched by government to rural residents, market mechanisms involved, district government and market forces of foreign business and consumers allied to become alternative focal actors, while villagers withdrew to the periphery of the actor network, which contributed to the re-establishment of actor network and the beautiful village's transformation to urban residents' consumption space. In order to meet consumers' demand, everyday lives of villagers' was represented partially to show the imaged rural life, but the real lives of villages was marginalized or hidden. Non-native culture and life style was transplanted or symbolically adopted, while the original village was fading away. 3) This paper explains the mechanism of social-spatial reconstruction of Dashiao village through the two sequential actor networks and how it transformed from the first to second. The transformation of intended target, which should be decided by focal actor of the actor network, the local government, from improving the physical environment to promotion of economic development determined the direction of the reconstruction of social space, as well as outside investment managers, and consumers attended and became key actors. Changes of structure and channel of interests in the actor network lead to the exit, redefinition and entering of actors. The reconstruction of social space is an ongoing process since the actor network is a dynamic connection, fulfilling of interests conflicts and negotiation. 4) From the actor-network perspective, beautiful village was not only a place for villagers' living and the tourists' poetic nostalgia, but also a networked space which is weaved of complex and dynamic relations of power. This paper points out the effectiveness and the time limitation of government and policy mechanisms, and the flexibility of the market mechanism, which brings about interest conflicts and social injustice. In the case of Dashiao, local residents withdrew from the masters of the village to marginalized role of urban residents' consumption space, and they have never played key actors during the establishment of the above two actor-networks.

Key words: beautiful village, consumption space, actor-network theory, social space